The use of the paradox in The Great Influenza by John M. Barry reveals seemingly contradictory statements true. In the second paragraph Barry believes that one must "embrace – uncertainty" (Barry). He uses this literacy device to highlight uncertainty as a welcomed sensation to be accepted, rather than denied. Along with presenting truthful statements, Barry makes every word, phrase, and sentence that he writes ultimately more powerful and read at different understanding levels by raising the bar and introducing contradicting information. Barry characterizes scientific research as contradicting. At any time, a scientist's research can be torn apart by a new finding or experiment. In line 21 Barry says that "uncertainty requires a confidence
Author John M. Barry, in The Great Influenza, claims that scientists must embrace uncertainty and doubt their ideas in order to be successful in their research. To support his claim, he first states that “uncertainty creates weakness”, then lists the traits required by scientists (including curiosity and creativity), and finally explains that experiments must be made to work by the investigator. The purpose of this is to further support his claim in order to encourage readers to embrace uncertainty because certainty creates something to lean on, while uncertainty forces one to manipulate experiments to produce answers. Barry adopts a formal tone to appeal to a worldwide audience, specifically those interested in scientific research, by using
Some think of science as advantageous, while others believe it can be immoral. Acts of science can lead to manipulation of the natural world and cause those performing the experiments to “play God.” Nathaniel Hawthorne 's short stories “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment,” “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” and “The Birthmark” each incorporate characters that attempt to alter a natural aspect of life and in turn are met with failure. It is through his short stories that Nathaniel Hawthorne reveals opinion of science: Men should not engage in scientific studies that require them to act as God.
“Certainty creates strength. Certainty creates something upon which to lean. Uncertainty creates weakness…” This two sentence antithesis is directly parallel to his later statement, “It is not the courage to venture into the unknown. It is the courage to accept- indeed, embrace- uncertainty.” These corresponding explain the societal views of certainty and uncertainty, maintaining that uncertainty is negative and a sign of weakness. However, the second quotes contradicts that viewpoint by emphasizing that a more notable trait, courage, is present in the less favorable condition. Barry parallels the two in order to express how researchers work in uncertain conditions and that the courage it takes to do this is immense. In the fifth paragraph Barry questions how a researcher chooses their means of excavation and analyzation. This paragraph is focused on the use of questions in order to show the number of possible decisions that can be made and that must be made in order to gain results. Barry uses this to show how researchers must make decisions on how to do something while not having a very structured knowledge foundation for that specific topic of interest. Together, the uses of these similar structures allows for a more cohesive train of thought about the characteristics of scientific
We were asked to read two articles one was “On Buying Local” by Katherine Spriggs and the other was “What’s Eating America” by Michael Pollan. In the article “On Buying Local,” Spriggs showed a great use of logos when she stated that it was better for us to buy locally because it was better for the environment. Spriggs gives us several reasons why we should give up “a little bit of convenience” in favor of helping the environment. Farmers wouldn’t have to lose their farms to larger farms, smaller farms could be more sustainable by using natural and local resources, and there would be fewer emissions. This idea has been meeting with some opposition people worry of economic damage, but Spriggs has shown the argument and counterarguments with the proof of how the argument is flawed. Spriggs showed a good use of pathos when
As Victor´s intention to succeed in natural sciences grow to an abnormal point, his judgement about what to do with that knowledge didn't let him contemplate the future consequences
It is often stated that people relate to emotions and not facts, and it seems Goodman understands just that. She clearly states the concepts and fundamentals behind the triumphs and struggles of modern day science while presenting them in a way that is filled with emotion. From jealously, delight and frustration, Goodman captures it all. Goodman writes, “Over and over he looked, and each time he made the discovery again: his virus worked on cancer cells. He had never seen anything more beautiful or more important than that mouse before him on the table,” (Goodman, 75). By capturing the emotions, Goodman is able to draw the reader into the context of the book and find a deeper understanding of the issues that arise by relating to the emotions that are associated with it.
Barry says, "a shovel can dig up dirt, but cannot penetrate a rock. Would a pick be best, or would dynamite be better- or would dynamite be too indiscriminately destructive?" Barry talks about science as if it was the wilderness. In the wilderness, there are many surprises that can occur at any moment. There are holes that you could step right over, not knowing it may have been the answer or may have been needed. During science you have to expect some theories to go south, or to go wrong. When a theory does not work you have to question your work and began to think of another theory to make sure you do not miss the holes you missed the first time. Barry uses this metaphor to show readers that scientists often question themselves continuously.
Ignorance is bliss. Often people hide behind what they wish to believe. The truth demands discomfort and people prefer comfort to truth.(Compound) In this world of conditioning, the Controllers keep any kind of truth from the people. Regardless, very few actually attempt to discover the truth. In the novel, Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley provides several examples of the truths individuals refuse in order to live in ignorance and bliss.
A scientist may find the next big leap in any particular field of study, but he may also find that all of his previous work might be useless and, ultimately, thrown out. John M. Barry uses the Metaphor of either finding a whole other world, that would be analogous to making a massive innovation, or falling off a cliff, finding out that your work was fruitless. In just one step, or one discovery, either a scientist will succeed or fail. There is no room for error. That reinforces the idea that scientists are brave. They are always on the edge, never knowing if they will be pioneers, or tumble off a
The first rhetorical device used in the excerpt is anaphora, the repetition of the word certainty and uncertainty is used to initiate each of the first four sentences. Barry uses this repetition to implant the idea that science is full of self-doubt and overcoming this allows one to become successful. In the first four sentences he says “Certainty creates strength. Certainty gives one something….Uncertainty creates weakness. Uncertainty makes one tentative…”(line 1) The repetition and rapid
The novella “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” has many elements of science compiled inside the story. The main scientific occurrence of the story is the duality between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which is what creates the basic concept of the story. The whole story plays around with this idea of duality and also on different scientists in the novella’s perspective on science. By “different scientists”, the novel refers to Dr. Jekyll and Dr. Lanyon. While Dr. Lanyon is a firm believer in rationalism, heterodoxy and reluctance, Dr. Jekyll embraces the insane, mystic side of science due to this, Dr. Lanyon acts as a foil to Dr. Jekyll throughout the story, while the reader is left to choose which
The laboratory from where the creature in Frankenstein was created, to the DHC in Brave New World , and the creation of humans by God in Paradise lost all share one thing in common. They both share the common theme which the art and science of creating a human life. All three of the novels want to have pure human beings free from disease and distress. But the novels also want to have social stability.
Sciences and technologies have improved many aspects of human lives. But as technologies are developing to be more and more advanced, science can be a deadly subject to us as well. Some writers have taken this idea and expanded on this theme of how science is deadly. In this essay I will discuss how this theme is explored in the texts: the novel Unwind written by Neal Shusterman, the film Gattaca directed by Andrew Niccol, following the short texts There Will Come Soft Rains and The Veldt written by Ray Bradbury.
In this manner, Barry uses figurative language to compare a nuclear aircraft to a kitchen; ultimately leaving the audience filled with laughter at the relative thought. Also, in the beginning of the essay Barry says that men are ‘scum’; the author is trying to be funny, and that is why the audience does not perceive it as offensive as it could be. Likewise, Barry also says that “children were running into themselves, trying to injure themselves” (Barry 3). In this particular instance, the author provides a comical sense by explaining something that many children tend to do during a family gathering. All in all, the ability of Barry to talk about relatable topics makes his essay much more enjoyable and