Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
Erikson’s first five stages followed the same sequence and core concepts as Freud’s and the element that bonds both their theories is that if someone has a difficulty in adulthood it is because they may not have resolved it in an earlier childhood conflict. For example, a child who does not resolve Erikson’s first stage of trust vs. mistrust will have problems trusting in adulthood. In Erikson’s third stage entitled initiative vs. guilt which takes place between the ages of 3-6, children internalize or accept responses from parents and peers and those internalized reactions follow them throughout their lives, and in turn, affect how they interact in society. For example, in a society where being assertive is valued an assertive child will get positive feedback and thrive. On the other hand, in a society where assertiveness is viewed negatively, the child will get negative responses from parents and peers and this will affect his development into an adult.
Today, within the framework of psychoanalysis social identity problem dealt with in detail Erikson, interest in particular issues of the evolution of self-consciousness of man and the stages associated with the development of his identity. It has identified eight stages in the formation of a mature identity. The first four stages occur in infancy and childhood, the fifth stage of puberty, and the last three in adulthood, old age inclusive. In his works Erikson puts special emphasis on puberty, because then a transition from childhood to adulthood. What is happening at this stage is very important for the personality of an adult.
According to him, the behavioural responses of the individuals to their environment (specific responses) allow identifying the way in which individuals typically behave in a situation (habitual responses); by grouping habitual responses, personality traits can be identified. Using factor analysis, Eysenck found certain personality traits that he believed were fundamental (super traits) and comprise all the other traits. Initially, Eysenck found two super-traits: extraversion and neuroticism. Later, he found a third super-trait, which he called psychoticism. These super-traits are not categorical, but measured on a continuum: at the opposite end of extraversion there is introversion, at the opposite of neuroticism there is emotional stability, while socialization is the opposite of psychoticism.
This stage is presented around middle adulthood and this is an important event for parenting roles and forming relationships with children. Children are in need of being taken care of while adults are needed. Generativity is making use of time and helping those around them such as the community or relationships while stagnation is the polar opposite which refers to failure in finding ways to contribute back. It is stated that everyone faces difficulties when entering parenthood and we see that not everyone comes across parenthood the same way. We see how culture takes a role in development as it is custom in the U.S for children to leave the home while in different cultures, it’s not viewed the same way.
Grace P. Rato Psych 17 AB PSYCHOLOGY-2 March 19, 2016 “Relevance of Theories Of Personality In The Different Fields of Psychology.” First of all, what is Personality? Personality is what makes you unique and refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. But there is little common agreement among personality theorists. Gordon Allport, said that personality is something real within an individual that leads to characteristic behavior and thought, but for Carl Rogers, another personality theorist who focused on Humanistic Psychology that the personality or “self” is an organized, consistent pattern of perception of the “I” or “me” that lies at the heart of an individual’s experience.
Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stage Psychosexual development stage is one of Freud’s major contribution to the Psychology field. Some of the concepts were based on his earlier study- the division of mental life into id, ego, and superego. In Freud’s psychosexual theory, each stage represents the fixation of libido (Instinct energy contain in Id). A particular conflict is existed in each stage of the psychosexual theory. One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage.
Introduction Studies of psychological theories are arguably the most relevant branches to examine to ascertain progress in a psychologist-client relationship, alongside client growth. The foundation that is essential to understand the inner workings of a client’s mind and the subsequent external behaviour is built from knowledge provided by theoretical insight. This paper will provide an abridged theoretical insight on Jungian Analysis- is the theory of the mind that stresses the value of wholeness for everyone. Aspects looked at will include: a historical background, key theorist description, key concepts, merit, techniques employed, critiques and relevance in the current context. Historical Background In 1907 Carl Jung met Sigmund Freud in
Erikson was an expansion of Freud’s psychosocial stages of personality development. He also had different concepts such as identity confusion, and generativity. He shows how cultural, social, and historical forces could have an impact on personality, and emphasized greatly on the ego rather than on the id. Erikson views the ego as an independent party, therefore it is not dependent on the id of the personality. He said that alienation from cultural traditions seemed to be related to the symptoms displayed by others, which resulted in an uncertain self-image or self-identity.
The quality of parenting style is very essential for children’s development. It will deeply and permanently affect children’s behaviors. In fact Haack (2014) suggest that corporal punishment helps to develop children’s moral. Children who come from strict family are more likely to be well mannered. However, there are some limitations and the result is not always be true.
Another finding of the study, was that positive parenting would moderate the association of intimate partner violence with child trauma (Ehrensaft, Knous-Westfall, & Cohen, 2016). Overall, the research demonstrates that children being exposed to intimate partner violence between their parents may increase the risk of them experiencing trauma symptoms in future. Also, they are more susceptible to practicing negative parenting rather than positive parenting with their own children. Positive parenting may be able to moderate the association of inmate partner violence, but it does not necessarily work when inmate partner
Interruptions to self-development may correlate with social skill difficulties, which are experienced in psychosis (Tarbox et al.,2008). Specifically, Lysaker et al. (2014) argued that disorganized personal narratives in psychotic patients are developed from personal experiences, which are crucial in constructing identity. The model of ‘self’ by Trower &Chadwick (1995) pointed out that a fully constructed self-identity has to be recognized and approved by other people via social interactions and relationships. In terms of identity development, problematic identity construction found in adolescence psychosis and study by Cuervo et al.