Erikson’s psychosocial stages Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development has 8 stages. Same like Freud Erikson also believed that crisis happen at each stage. According to Erikson these changes happen due to the philosophical needs of an individual struggle with the needs of the society. Therefore he named the stages as psychosocial crises. Furthermore he has mentioned in his theory, the result of completing each stage successfully, also the result of failure to complete a stage successfully.
Adolescence is largely accepted as the period between puberty and adulthood. There is no age bracket for the periods of development that an individual goes through – each of them overlap each other, yet each is distinct. Erikson, in his theory of psychosocial development speaks about how the individual’s social surroundings develop the identity of the person and his personality. And this development happens in stages. Adolescence is one such stage that Erikson characterizes as Identity vs Role Confusion.
(Salkind, 2004) Erickson believes that social pressures and environmental forces have even greater impacts. Ericksons stages are best described as psychosocial. Erickson states that development takes place through the resolvement of a crisis. Here is an example of Erickson’s eight stages of psychosexual development. stage Psychosocial stage task Social conditions Psychosocial outcomes Birth to 1 year Oral sensory Can I trust the world?
Erikson emphasises that the individual experiences significant psychosocial and personal change at each stage of life until death. Additionally, Levinson’s theory observes adulthood as a continual process of re-evaluation and change. Social and emotional features of adulthood are significant contributors to instability due to changing roles and emerging of life events. Continual challenges are guaranteed because the length of adulthood has endless potential for new experiences. This relates to Erikson’s notion that identity evolves throughout the lifespan due to experiences.
Erikson had developed eight stages of psychosocial development such as infancy (birth to 18 months), toddler (18 months to 3 years), preschooler (3 to 5 years), school age child (6 – 12 years), adolescent 13 – 19 years), young adult (20 – 39 years), middle-aged adult (40 – 55 years), late adult (55 – 65 to death). The key ideas of Erikson 's theory were that at every stage of life individual faces a conflict if trust remains unresolved
Erik Erikson was a stage theorist that emphasized on psychosocial development. His theory is the expansion of the Freud’s psychosexual theory. Erikson claimed that the development of the personality is based on the eight stages of lifespan model of development which he proposed. The eight stages of the lifespan model of development consist of “Trust vs Mistrust”, “Autonomy vs Shame”, “Initiative vs Guilt”, “Industry vs Inferiority”, “Identity vs Role Confusion”, “Intimacy vs Isolation”, Generativity vs Stagnation” and “Ego Integrity vs Despair”. The first stage of our lifespan is “Trust vs Mistrust” stage.
Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. Erikson has stated during each stage, the individual can experience a psychosocial crisis which can either lead to a positive or negative outcome for personality development (McLeod, 1). During this stage, adolescence become more independent and prepare for their future in terms of families, careers, bills, etc (McLeod, 39). Erikson’s theory also states that this stage is crucial as adolescents will try to rediscover his or her identity and try to figure out exactly who they are. During this specific period, adolescents start to explore possibilities and begin to develop their own personal identity based on their experiences, in which they have explored.
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Human development changes throughout a lifespan and those changes include, physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes between birth and adulthood. This paper reflects my own personal changes and focuses specifically on the changes concerning both cognitive development and psychosocial development. Cognitive development involves the mental mind and allows for reasoning and the ability to make decisions, based on logic and reason, to take place. Once individuals reach the age to reason, the maturity levels and past experiences shifts to concrete operational thinking. This stage includes problem-solving and a new method to thinking, such as anticipating or having a theory about something to come.
Various theorists have provided frameworks for recognizing the indicators of maturity. Erikson 's stages of psychosocial development describe progression into adult maturity, with each maturation stage characterized by a certain kind of psychosocial conflict. The “Identity” stage is characterized as being mainly concerned with issues of role exploration and role confusion, and also the exploration of sexual and other identities. Adolescents navigate a web of conflicting values and selves in order to emerge as 'the person one has come to be ' and 'the person society expects one to become '. Erikson did not insist that stages begin and end at globally pre-defined points, but that particular stages such as “Identity” could extend into adulthood for as long as it took to resolve the conflict.
He is best-known for this theory and the concept of the identity crisis. The key idea in Erikson 's theory is that the individual faces a conflict at each stage, which may or may not be successfully resolved within that stage. For example, he called the first stage 'Trust vs Mistrust '. If the quality of care is good in infancy, the child learns to trust the world to meet her needs. If not, trust remains an unresolved issue throughout succeeding stages of development.