Throughout Chinese history before the Tang and Song dynasties, the daily lives of women and issues from their perspective have not been adequately recorded, due to a male dominated society. However, from the Tang to the Song dynasty, visual and material sources appear which further explains the status of women in society, cultural values, but most importantly, examples of acts of courage, selflessness, and strength. The discussion of women starting with the Tang dynasty is especially important since this is the start of open-mindedness and liberal ideas resulting in women in politics, a woman as empress, and even freedom of expression through poetry and art. However, once shifting to the Song dynasty, the status of women declined further in …show more content…
The Chang’an, which was the capital, was a city of merchants, and entertainment such as tea houses and restaurants with foreign food. The elites of the Tang had a mixed background, understanding the customs and system of other nations. This caused the ruling elites to be more knowledgeable, flexible, and adapting, compared to other dynasties. The Tang Legal Code was a major set of rules established during this time. The Tang Code enunciated general principles of the law and listed specific offenses and punishments. It was later used as a model for other societies such as the Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Punishment carried depending on the status of the violator. The Tang Code was a result in Legalist thinking, but also Confucian values. Legalism was apparent though determining the appropriate punishment for a particular crime. However, Confucianism was apparent since the killing of a family member was worse than killing a stranger, resulting in a harsher crime. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism also flourished throughout the Tang dynasty. The Tang were a mix of Confucian and Legalist rule, but most were Buddhist, resulting in many Buddhist temples. The reaction of the growth of Buddhism resulted in scholar, Han Yu criticizing its growth. Han Yu was a Confucian scholar, advocating the use of filial piety which mean rulers retain loyalty to their subjects. Later, Buddhist monasteries were closed down …show more content…
In the song Dynasty, scholar-officials emerged as a new social group. They were incorporated in government through the establishment of civil service examinations and became powerful. This expansion occurred due to the need to eliminate the power of the military. Assets associated with scholar officials was education and land. So in the Song dynasty, education was directly related to wealth. Elite families used several strategies to maintain their identity and status, including owing land, and participation in civil service examinations, eventually leading to a spot in government. A few activities elites would engage in are poetry, calligraphy, and painting. These were known as “The 3 Perfections”. They were connected to class and status, and showed a good education. The Song dynasty was known as a period of multi state. It consisted of the Northern Song and the Southern Song. The northern Song was conquered by the Jin or the Jurchen, who were nomads who lived in the forests of Manchuria. The Song attempted to recover the North but could not because of their weak military force. Women remained inferior than men during the Song
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In the Dynastic cycle, the dynasties Song and Qin were not strong in the Period of Decline. Through the period of decline these 2 dynasty have done the same things and different things. This was a big impact on how they fell. Similarities and Differences Some similarities are that they both ignored the needs of the poor. They didn’t care for the poor at all during this period of time.
The Han Dynasty is predominantly concerned with laws and education when trying to regulate their citizens. They use Legalist and Confucius teachings as a baseline for how they rule. Furthermore, emperor Han Wudi created the Confucian Education System to teach future government officials discipline and loyalty to elders, especially the emperor. This lowered the chance that bureaucrats would betray them. While men doing government services were disciplined, the government used strict laws and their military to maintain order in the community.
Taylor Burke Mrs.Schweighardt World History, Period 6 8 February 2023 In what ways did the Han Dynasty improve government and daily life in China? The Han Dynasty was one of the first Dynasties that brought back the idea of Confucianism into their government and ruling system. After many years of following Legalism, the Han Dynasty decided to Soften the harsh rules that the Quinn Dynasty left behind and introduce Confucianism which helped influence the people to have moral standards that they show to elders, friends, and family.
People would follow Confucian ideologies/teachings because they thought this ideology would be better for Chinese society, since Buddhism was not mentioned in Confucian texts. As Confucius’ followers would challenge Buddhist ideologies, people believed Confucianism was better because its main focus was how people in China should rule themselves. People would angrily challenge Buddhism because for them the rightful lifestyle were the teachings of Confucius, as these promoted traditional Chinese values. (Document 4) Leaders of Confucianist ideologies in the Tang imperial court in the year 819 CE would challenge Buddhist ideals. The imperial court would present Buddhists as “Barbarians” and how Confucianist ideals was the only way society could work.
Since the start of the Chin dynasty, countless philosophies were developed and preserved throughout time. Legalism, which was created by Han Fei, is an example of change through time as many punishments got weaker and strict laws were declined. On the other hand, one of the main philosophies that show continuity is Confucianism and the ideas of respecting the superior people were developed throughout time. In fact, Mandate of Heaven, a belief of rulers receiving blessings of the gods, is also an example of continuity in philosophies. In summary, during the time period between 221 B.C to 618 A.D in China, Legalism went through many significant changes, while Confucianism and Mandate of Heaven stayed constant.
Intro The Tang Dynasty is commonly referred to as the golden age of Ancient China. They had a strong and stable government that supported trade and created equality. Tang China also possessed immense wealth and a strong military, as well as inventing various technological advancements. Trade greatly boosted the Tang Dynasty 's prosperity and it was the leading source of China 's immense wealth during its golden age.
The purpose of this was to show people how to be in harmony with their place in life. Legalism is a ruling made by Shi Huangdi, who was a strict ruler in china. The purpose of this ruling was to get the people of china to follow the rule, and if they didn’t there was a very harsh punishment. Although confucianism and legalism have some similarities, but the differences between the two are amazingly clear.
The main theme that entangles itself in all of the source material is the idea of how governments should be run in such a powerful empire, such as Imperial Rome and the Han Dynasty. Starting with the first source, it is evident that the first Qin emperor believed that only the orthodox teachings should be tolerated, which meant that the works of the Five Classics and its teachings were to be extinguished. The next primary source serves as a supplement to explaining the fall of the Qin dynasty due to its warring ideas and Jia Yi argues that if Confucius teachings were implemented then the dynasty would have still been intact. The third source explains how the Qin dynasty was unjust in its equal appropriation of punishment against criminals regardless of motives or social class. Essentially, Dong Zhongshu believed that a dynasty could not be successful if it failed to establish a fair and righteous justice system for its citizens.
Different periods throughout China’s history have different names, known as dynasties, for the diverse positions within its society. Theoretically, all of the periods are similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the average everyday people being under regular Chinese law. Throughout China’s history, the society has been organized into a hierarchic system of socio-economic classes, known as the four occupations. The four occupations system seems to have become distorted after the commercialization of Chinese culture during the Song Dynasty. Even though the social rankings within the country are not as predominant as they once were, the people living within the country still know their “place” within the society.
It was used in many previous dynasties as a guide to ruling. For example, in the Han Dynasty, government officials were chosen based on whoever scored the highest on an exam about the theory of Confucianism. Therefore, the most highest ranking officials were scholars who had mastered Confucianism best. The Tang government also made the ruling officials follow the ideas of Confucianism to rule the people. Confucianism enforced loyalty, order and respect, and was based on the principle of “ren”, or compassion and kindness.
Confucian ideas highlight the need to have a heir, thus the Emperor need to be sexually active, which explains the very large number of women in the inner court. However, according to Confucian ideals, the Emperor was not supposed to retain any pleasure from this encounters. therefore leading to a paradox hard to overcome by the Emperor and even harder to enforce by the outer court officials depute their moral concerns. Song women were also granted for the first time considerable legal rights. In fact, Song Dynasty is seen as a high point for women property point in China, further challenging Confucian traditional patrilinality.
Chinese women suffer from the unfair notion for thousands of years. The basic requirements of being virtuous women are “Three Obediences and Four Virtues (三从四德)”. The “Three Obediences” were “obey your father before marriage (未嫁从父); obey your husband when married (既嫁从夫); and obey your sons in widowhood (夫死从子)”. And the “Four Virtues” were “Female virtues (妇德)”, “Female words (妇言)”, “Female appearances (妇容)” and “Female work (妇功)”. (Sun, 2015).