Soap Production Method

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2.1.2 Methods of Soap Production
Soap production methods upgraded when two scientific findings were made in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In 1790, the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1742-1806) designed a process for producing caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide) from common table salt (Sodium chloride). His invention made low-priced soap manufacture possible by aiding chemists to develop a procedure whereby natural fats and oils can react with caustic soda. The method was advanced when another French chemist, Michel Eugene Chevreul (1786-1889), revealed the nature of the fats and oils as soap production became less expensive and attitudes towards public health and hygiene changed, soap making became a significant industry.
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Glycerine is washed away and the soap is obtained after centrifugation (application of centrifugal force to a heterogeneous mixture to cause separation of the components on the basis of their densities) and neutralisation (the reaction between an acid and a base to produce salt and water). This process has several advantages over the ‘full-boiled’ processes. It is more energy and time efficient, allows greater control of the soap structure and concentration. The important by-product, glycerine is easily recovered (Net Industries,…show more content…
The characteristics of this soap depend on the quality of oil, and the amounts of the caustic soda and water used. The speed of the reaction between the oil and the caustic soda is influenced by free fatty acid content of the oil, the heat of the components before mixing, and how vigorously the mixing is to be done. Free fatty acid contents, vigorous mixing, and heat, speed up the given soap-making process. An example of oil that can be used in the soap making process is neem oil (Mishra, 2013)
2.2 Neem Oil
Neem tree is a type of mahogany, an evergreen tropical to subtropical tree that can grow to heights ranging from 15.24 m to 19.812 m. It is noted for its drought resistance (it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions). It can grow in areas with annual rainfall values below 25.4 mm, with a source of water from existing ground water levels. In severe drought, it sheds most or nearly all of its leaves.
Neem seed cake (residue of neem seeds after oil extraction) when used for soil amendment or added to soil, not only supplements the soil with organic matter but also lowers nitrogen losses by hindering nitrification. It also works as a nematicide. (Organeem Limited Liability Company,

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