The exclusion of Islam as a political, social and cultural force and the conversion of the Iranian monarchy into a dictatorship of the modern kind by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of the Pahlavi Dynasty in Iran during his regime ( Khomeini, 1981) had received rejections from the Iranian community and eventually resulted to the Islamic revolution which occurred in the year 1979. Although the rule under the Shah had modernise Iran and was supported by the United States and also, considered by the West that his rule was the most stable rule in Iran, he received oppositions by the majority of the community in Iran due to his tyrannical personality and his un-Islamic ways of reforming the country. The revolution was led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khumayni. Khumayni, who wanted the state to be an Islamic Government, had a number of supporters for this movement of revolution. Among of his supporters were the Leftists, several of Islamic Organisations and the Iranian Student Movement.
Also, a few of the university students could speak English as they had been studying in foreign countries thanks to their scholarships and sabbaticals. Also, Iran had good relationship with the USA and the UK which let a lot of English speaking tourists to come and visit Iran. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1978, the country experienced a lot of changes and new needs came into existence. When the Supreme Leader and the founder of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, announced that there is a need to export the findings of the Islamic Revolution and emphasized on the importance of learning foreign languages, it was expected to see foreign language learning in general and EFL learning in particular to be one of Iran’s top priorities. However, the story was not that
A great example of its effect is seen between American and Iranian/Muslim cultures during the 1980s and the 2010s. Many effects of the resistance are seen in the movie "Not Without My Daughter". Many of the changes and events in Iran have been focused on women, religion, dress, and family. Since the revolution Iran has become a devout Muslim country ruled by a very religious government, and because of its
In 1939, Reza Shah’s unveiling declaration sparked a worldwide debate as to what the veil actually symbolizes. Ever since the beginning of Islam, women throughout the Islamic world have had to adopt the hijab as part of their cultural and religious attire due to various interpretations of the Islamic dress code. In addition, the Koran emphasizes purity in the name of Islam by asking both men and women to be modest when it comes to the way they dress. Furthermore, in his efforts to modernize Iran, Reza Shah failed to satisfy the needs of his people, as he gave women no say in what they could and could not wear in public. This eventually resulted in the division of Iranian women, as there were those who favored the Islamic tradition, and those who supported the regime and its adoption of Western values.
Kate Sherd Daniel Coffman Geography 3/16/18 Country Analysis Paper: Iran Introduction/ History: Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC. Iran used to be known as Persia until 1935 when it became known as the Islamic republic. Iran won its independence in April of 1979 following the triumph of the Islamic Revolution, led by Ayatollah Khomeini who was the founder of Iran as an Islamic Republic. He was an Iranian Shia Muslim (religious leader and politician). Following the revolution, he became the Supreme leader which he held until his death in 1989.
He studied Islam and presented an Islamic critiques in response to the young Muslims who are being influenced by the western thoughts of capitalism or Marxism. He is also tagged as the intellectual ideologue of the Iranian revolution. The Iranian revolution which happened in 1979 was one of the most significant event in the history of the Iranians. Westerners commonly perceive the Iranian as an outdated and intolerant movement that rejects all things modern and non-Muslim. They claim that the revolution leads the revival of Islam, and that the revolutionary movement is a realistic phenomenon uncontaminated by any foreign
The twentieth century witnessed the rise of elites and governments in the Islamic world, focused on modernizing and westernizing their respective states and social structures (Webb 2005, p.100). Mustapha Kemal in Turkey, Habibullah and Amanullah in Afghanistan, and Reza Shah in Iran are just a few examples hereof. In general, these leaders shared the common goal of discouraging traditional practices, which they generally viewed as archaic, and instead want to introduce modern institutions that would serve to integrate their countries and economies into the international community and the emerging global economy (Webb 2005, p.100). In Iran, these westernizing elements have constituted one side of a fierce conflict between modernism and traditionalism,
Soon after the revolution, Iran became one bundle of chaos as the country began experiencing internal difficulties with the new republic. Then, with the war between Iran and Iraq, violence became Marji’s daily lifestyle. The Iranians were left to themselves to protect their friends and family from the bombings and other types of violence occuring in plain sight. Many unfortunate individuals lost their belongings as well as close friends and family. For example, a close friend of Marji’s mother, Mali (and her family), lost their belongings in a serious bombing.
After 1953 coup with the help of American, Mohammad Reza Shah regime relied on oil revenue and external support and could not justify and rationalize its existence and use of power. His ideology had a conflict with the population. Government policies of modernization led to rapid social changes that resulted in disorientation, dislocation and normative disturbance as a result of the displacement of social, political, economic, and legal institutions. Shah’s modernization programs were not rooted in Iranian society; thus the elite could not maintain their position in the system. The process of modernisation in Iran resulted in large-scale migration from the rural areas to the urban centres.
In this way, considering political situation, he was born in a wrong time when led him to become a nihilist and commit suicide. During his lifetime, the country along with the world was in transition. Only three years after his birth, one of the most important events of contemporary period of Persian history named “the Constitutional Revolution” happened which resulted in the establishment of an elected parliament along with the royal power. The event and the enactment of the new laws for saving the country from government corruption and foreign manipulation acted as an essential step in its time. He grew up in a paradoxical ambient between national sentiments and religious feelings, on one hand, and modernization and Westernization, on the other hand.