It is explained that adaptive problems include mate poachers, sexual infidelity, pregnancy with another man's child (which can be related to sexual infidelity), resource infidelity, resource scarcity, mate-value discrepancies, stepchildren, terminating the mating, as well as mate reacquisition and preventing a former partner from re-mating (mainly stalking, and a result of terminating the mating). As far as violence in relation to adaptive problems, when it comes to mate poachers, violence is directed at the poachers, as apposed to the mate. This is a similar situation when it comes to stepchildren as well. Violence is not necessarily directed at the mate. However, with sexual infidelity, pregnancy with another man's child, resource scarcity, mate-value discrepancies, terminating the mating, along with mate reacquisition and preventing a former partner from re-mating, violence is usually directed at the mate with intentions to solve the problem, deterring re-mating, gain or regain control, or to deter any temptation.
Although the staff may not have to worry about being assaulted as much, they may still develop mental issues by completely separating themselves from the inmates except only in “control” situations (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2015). It would seem that the staff members in supermax prisons could also get a sense of comfort, which could in turn be very dangerous for them. The staff has complete control over the inmates, and this may make them more relaxed in a place where they need not be relaxed. Overall, supermax prisons can have negative effects on staff and inmates, but they also can have positive effects. The main positive effect would be separating these violent inmates from the general population, and potentially removing key leaders from STG groups.
Freud implies that the major conflict faced during this stage is the Oedipal/Electra conflict. Resolution of this conflict should result in the attachment to the parents, most notably the same sex parent and the development of a superego. Freud suggests that an Oedipus conflict applies to boys. A boy wants his mother and therefore is jealous of his father and wants to remove him. The fear that his father will discover the son’s feelings is expressed in terms of fear of castration, but is finally resolved through identifying with the father.
4.5 Negative effects of incarceration As past researches had illustrated that incarceration did help on decresing crime rate and suppress one’s criminality. The school of Crime and some researchers had demonstrated that incarceration might boost one’s criminality and the risk of re-offending. Besides, imprisonment may be psychologically harmful to mentally disordered prisoner as well. “Prions Do Not Reduce Recidivism: The High Cost of Ignoring Science” has mentioned that while prison is might seen as a offenders condensed community, prisoners group together and share their pains of being imprioned, thus, shaping or reinforcing their attitudes of crime and violence. Additionally, reinforce and enhance prisoner’s criminality overwhelmingly
This is most often demonstrated through psychological struggles among inmates. The Los Angeles Times outlines the ineptitude of the current juvenile correctional facilities to assist inmates in solving their past psychological traumas by stating, “There remain offenders who require more intensive supervision, often in the form of therapy that helps them cope with the chaos and trauma they have experienced in their young lives. The large, gray, prison-like barracks of old-style probation camps are inadequate for that level of rehabilitation.” (“A Win for Juvenile Justice”). The article highlights the inefficiency of the facilities in supplementing the mental stability of their inmates. The correctional institutes lack the accommodations to aid their broken inmates in struggles that have been present for much of their lives.
Scientific research has shown that some physical factors such as hormonal influence and brain mechanisms can play a role in an individual's inclination to criminality. The work of Eysenck et al (1986), in particular, was important in elevating the status of biological explanations for criminal behaviour. Eysenck et al administered 5 questionnaires to 573 twin pairs measuring altruism, empathy, nurturance, aggressiveness and assertiveness. Eysenck found that 50% of the variance on each of the questions could be explained by genetic effects, suggesting that aggression is a genetic personality trait. Despite this, if aggression was a completely genetic personality trait, then the variance should be 100% as monozygotic twins share all of their DNA.
Love and affection given by their husbands all this while are false and unreal. This is proven by polygamy that is done by men. If men are really loving their wife, why must they marry another woman? Why must they betray their love and marriage? Thus, polygamy does not define a true love as it is too hurtful for women.
If you lock them up they will still get into drugs and be by gang members. They don’t have a way out, but if you find a way out in the community and have a way to build them up that is good. They need a good education program as well, so they can continue and grow as individuals. Another thing we forget about is the psychological and social characteristics of juvenile offenders. Some juveniles suffer from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger, dissociation, severe personality disorder, and sexual problems.
For this reason, the underdeveloped brain cannot take the credit for why juveniles commit crimes. Author Gail Garinger says, “Today, few believe that criminal genes are inherited, except in the sense that parental abuse and negative home lives can leave children with little hope and limited choices” (Garinger 93). This is meaning that most juveniles commit the serious crimes because they see family members doing the same thing and follow in their footsteps. Others may also commit these serious crimes because they feel neglected at home and this is there way of calling for attention. The lack of maturity in the brain should not be a reason why juveniles can go into their community and take others lives away.
When men are incarcerated, gender issues often become heightened as they seek power or control in the prison. According to Kupers (2005), toxic masculinity involves “the need to aggressively compete and dominate others.” This concept may contribute to certain groups holding more power over others, and leads to the formation of dynamics between sub-communities within the prison. Toxic masculinity frequently results in male offenders resisting mental health treatment or other psychotherapy, since it could be perceived by other inmates as a “vulnerability”. Therefore, male offenders often underreport their emotional issues, and may not reach out for help until they have developed suicidal ideation or psychotic symptoms, (Kupers, 2005). Many prisoners adopt this survival mindset, in which there is no room to express pain or emotion that could in any way lessen their “masculinity”.This can become a major challenge in trying to incorporate treatment programs in prisons, especially if they are constantly being resisted.