Social Uncertainties In Construction

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3. Social uncertainties: the impact of the public on the project has a significantly influence a project’s outcome. For example, resistance from the community to the use of overseas construction workers. Moreover, the construction of a building may have adverse social consequences due to its particular nature and location. The changing social environment may also affect an individual’s attitude and behavior due to different cultures and systems, for example, in terms of demands for better working conditions.

4. Legal uncertainties: The change in legislation system can directly affect a client’s personal objectives through the implementation of the new laws with respect to planning, safety and the other building regulations, etc. The changes
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Currently Construction industry is now focusing on application of IT (information technology) in the projects so as to overcome the different dynamic environment situations as discussed earlier in the chapter 1. Computer-assisted tools form two-dimensional diagrams, such as bar charts or critical path network charts, which lack in the proper visualization with respect to the actual construction and have been used to represent construction schedules and track the activities from time to time. The resource management and workspace requirements, which are not shown in detail on the two dimensional frames are usually coordinated mentally. The visual representation of construction site which includes the progress of the building works and status of the use of site space and requirements as time elapses, will not be available in 2 dimensional diagrams. Thus, planners have to rely on their experience and intuition, imagination and judgment to extract data from paper-based design documents and to decide upon the appropriate method of construction, its timings and the site usage layout. The main aim of application of IT in the construction industry is to overcome the above discussed factors and some of the IT applications that are being applied in the construction projects are discussed…show more content…
Characteristics of 4D-GCPSU:

1. 4D Visualization and Simulation
The 4D concept encapsulates along with the time-based set of activities related to project the 3D model, remains the key objective of the model. In 4DSMM, when performing 4D simulation, the original schedule can be created and synchronized fully automatically to all 3D objects and components via the WBS. The synchronization of the work process is fast and accurate. Finally it can been verified for the real application.

2. Component-Based Architecture
With the rapid development of IT applications, future extensibility and adaptation of latest technology becomes a major source for application of any software. Although it was designed originally for the implementation of the 4D concept along with practical verification of feasibility study, its scope has been expanded further to incorporate the management of resources and site usage layout and other more features which will also be anticipated in the future. In order to maintain up to date with emerging concepts and technologies, the architecture of 4DSMM has been tailored to allow greater

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