The process repeated again after adding suitable amount of water to the soil in an increasing order. The optimum moisture content was 14% 3.3 Soil Classification In the Indian Standard Classification System, classification of soil is done on the basis of their gradation characteristics and using Plasticity Index. Coarse grained soils that consist of more than 12% fines are classified as Silty Gravel or Silty sand if the fines are silty in character (i.e. it lies below the A-Line); They are classified as Clayey Gravel or Clayey sand if fines are clayey in character (i.e. the limits plot above the A-line on the Plasticity chart.
It tells us how many times the soil grain is heavier than water. The specific gravity of solids of a soil sample depends upon the mineral constituents of the soil sample. However, the average specific gravity of solids of sand sample is 2.65 whereas for clay it is about 2.70. For most soils, Gs varies in a very narrow range of 2.6 to 2.8, Holtz and Kovacs (1981). The specific gravity of soil mass can be determined by experiment in the laboratory.
Verna Wang Hannah Palmer CHEM 101-069 Lab 11-19-16 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reagents Lab Report Purpose: We are using the reaction of sodium hydroxide and calcium chloride to illustrate stoichiometry by demonstrating proportions needed to cause a reaction to take place. Background: Just like a recipe would call for a specific amount of one ingredient to a specific amount of another, stoichiometry is the same exact method for calculating moles in a chemical reaction. Sometimes, we may not have enough of or too much of one ingredient , which would be defined as limiting and excess reagent, respectively. Ideally, every mole of each reagent would be used up, and theoretical yield, we are assuming that every last mole of the reactants would
In this case, the addition on the product side needs to be balanced by formation of the original solid.  This experiment aims to test a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide and calculate the Ksp of the compound. METHODOLOGY Table I. Six media at different conditions Medium Condition A : 50 mL distilled water : 28º C B : 50 mL distilled water : 80º C C : 50 mL distilled water : 10º C D : 50 mL 0.10 M CaCl2 : 28º C E : 50 mL 0.50 M KCl : 28º C F : 45 mL distilled water + 5 mL 95% thanol : 28º
STANDARDIZATION OF CEMENT MORTAR BY USING COLLOIDAL NANO-SILICA ( Priyanka Sabale, Vrushali Tandulkar, Snehal Randive, Gaurav Mishra, Omkar Sherkar, Deepak Chavan)a Dr.Milinda Mahajan b , Archana Tanawadec , a Students of Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, kondhawa Bk, Pune, Maharashtra,411048 b Professor of Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, kondhawa Bk, Pune, Maharashtra,411048 C Assistant Professor of Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, kondhawa Bk, Pune, Maharashtra, 411048 Abstract The objective of this study is to explore the effect of incorporating colloidal nano-silica and replacement of river sand by crushed sand in cement mortar on enhancing mechanical properties and durability. Three percentages of nano-silica with three nominal particle
The upper half slides along the lower half by an increasing applied horizontal shearing force, while a constant load is applied perpendicular to the plane of movement. The relative displacement of the two portions of the specimen and the applied force are measured during the procedure so that a load v/s displacement curve can be drawn. METHOD Apparatus Stopwatch, Mixing Bowl and Balance. Shear box carriage, watertight, running on roller bearings; Shear box machine with electric motor and multi-speed driver unit, and load ring for measuring the horizontal shear force; Shear box body in two halves, the upper half fitted with a “swan-neck” yoke, and clamping and lifting screws; Loading pad, porous plates, perforated grid plates and retaining plate; Loading yoke, weight hanger and lever-arm; and Method Prepare the soil sample by adding small quantities of water and mixing until clay becomes stiff (take care not to make sample to wet); Compact sample in a 60mm x 60mm x 20mm cutting ring. Assemble the shear box as indicated in Figure 1.
The soil samples were first shaken for about two hours after putting the relevant solvent before pH measured in the settling suspension. 3.3.3 Soil bulk density, water content and porosity Soil bulk density was measured in the three main plots and six sub-plots. Two rings of 5cm diameter each was used to collect the samples from three holes for the layers of 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm per each sub-plot at any time in winter or spring if the soil is not too wet. The samples from each ring will be put in the bag, weighed then dried by oven at 1050C. Dry bulk density, water content and soil porosity will be measured using pycnometer method as described by Heiskanen (1992).
Modification of sandy soil hydro-physical environment through bagasse additive under proper laboratory experiment Abd El-Halim Abd El-Halim 1* and Arunsiri Kumlung 2 1 Department of Soil & Water, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tanta, 31527 Tanta, Egypt 2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kasetsart University, Thailand *, corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com Abstract Sandy soils until yet can be considered as one group having common hydro-physical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydro-physical properties of sandy soil through determine the bulk density, aggregate-size distribution, total porosity,
KNOWLEDGE OF EQUIPMENT: A schematic diagram of the direct shear test apparatus is shown in Figure 9.2. The test equipment consists of a metal shear box in which the soil specimen is placed. The soil specimens may be square or circular. The size of the specimen generally used is about 20 to 25 cm2. The force on the specimen is applied from the top of the shear box.
The soil layer composed of silt and silty loam were dominant among the sediment texture. More sandy and fine sand of sediments texture were found to be very shallow in southern part of the lake. Sandy clay were less near center of the lake and near islands might be due to clay flocculation in calcareous materials where the region with high deposition of molluscan dead shells. Silty sediment had affinity with concentration of phosphate and also silt soil had acidic pH which suggested that the decaying seagrass and seaweed materials in the silt soil could produce H2S gas contributed lower pH (acidic condition) with the humic substance (Thangaradjou and Kannan 2005). Silt concentration in the sediments were observed more during monsoon due to riverine input and heavy rainfall (Padma and Periakali, 1999) from previous season made top course soil to erode and settlement of fine silt and clayey loam texture.