Marielle Apronti Prof. Oscar Williams AAFS 311 4 March 2018 The Trans-Atlantic slave trade was the most important factor when considering the early development of European capitalism. The arrival of the Portuguese to the West African Coast and their establishment of trading and slave ports throughout the continent set in stone a trend of exploitation of Africa 's labor and human resources. Europeans greatly benefited from the Trans-Atlantic trade, as it allowed them to aggregate raw materials such as sugar and cotton to manufacture products that funded the Industrial Revolution. In the book “Capitalism and Slavery” by Eric Williams he addresses the origin of “Negro” history, the economic and political impact of slavery in Great Britain, the role of the American Revolution and the decline of slavery in Great Britain. William’s main argument in this book is that the rise of industrial capitalism in Europe would not have been possible without the profits derived from African slave labor. Williams does an exceptional job of demonstrating how slavery transformed England into an economic superpower. This book illustrates the economic aspects of the slave trade as it addresses who benefited from it, how it contributed to the formation of capitalism. When referencing the book by Eric Williams, “Capitalism and Slavery” the origin of Negro slavery is something in history that is disputed and misconstrued. According to William’s book slavery was caused by numerous economic
These slaves provided labor for European slave owners and led to the depletion of African societies as a whole. During the spice trade the Dutch and English as well as the French paid charters for private companies to establish trade post empires in the Indian Ocean. Although these were private companies, they were working for their respective countries and directly benefitted Europe through their involvement in the spice trade. Despite the Russian fur trade not directly
The transatlantic slave trade was a brutal and inhumane enterprise, where millions of Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas under brutal conditions (Bailyn 140). The conditions for enslaved Africans on English sugar plantations were often horrific, with harsh punishments and long working hours in hot and humid conditions (Fisher 47). Nonetheless, it is undeniable that the use of enslaved labor was a crucial factor in the success of the English colonies in the Caribbean. The use of slave labor allowed the English to cultivate crops such as sugar cane at a much lower cost, and thus gain a competitive advantage in the global market (Fisher 34). Without the labor of enslaved Africans, it is unlikely that the English would have been able to establish such profitable and successful sugar
David N. Gellman is a professor of Early American History at DePauw University in Indiana and his written work focuses greatly on colonial America and emancipation in the United States. As an expert in Early American History, David N. Gellman gives us a strong background on the institution of slavery in New York in his book Emancipating New York and the road to the emancipation of African Americans in the state of the New York. David N. Gellman’s book Emancipating New York describes the process by which the state of New York abolished slavery with a combination of white opposition, black resistance and political changes. The abolition of slavery in New York was an effort of the above-mentioned sectors of society and government, all with differing views, interests and agendas.
During the slave trade Britain’s economics was thriving through all the imports and exports on trade. Planters, slave owners, stock holders on slaves, even banks made a profit. During this period, they helped the economy out a lot but times change.
In the book Alexander talks about how plantation owners decided to ship slaves directly from Africa rather than importing English-speaking slaves who were more likely to rebel. “These slaves would be far easier to control and far less likely to form alliances with poor whites.” (Alexander,2011, p.24). The author also talks about the status of African slaves and slavery. “By the mid-1770’s, the system of bond labor had been thoroughly transformed into a racial caste system predicated on slavery.
• The Slave Trade was already occurring where Arab merchants and even Africans traded them o Slaves from father away were more expensive because they could not run back to their native tribes or be rescued o Slaves were mixed so they could not resist o African cultures and tribal identities were lost • Arab and African practices were learned by the Portuguese that had slaves work on sugar plantations • The plantation economy with commercial agriculture and slave labor formed the New World • The Portuguese still looked for a water route to Asia •
During the time period of 1450-1750, there were many changes as well as continuities in the economy of the Atlantic world form. One main change during this time was, the involvement of trading European firearms and other foods. This diversified the initial upbringing of the Atlantic world trade, which was different from its original usage of exporting slaves, gold, salt, and other goods. But this was both a positive and negative change for the economical status of the Europeans earnings increased, but negatively as well as there were more weapons used for violence. In relation, a continuity that occurred through this time was the use of the Atlantic world for the trade of African slaves.
From mid-15th century to the end of the 19th century, in order to provide labor, the western colonial countries took a large number of black people from Africa to American colonial plantations and mines. Since the slave trade was mainly carried out on both sides of the Atlantic, the western countries generally call it “the Atlantic slave trade”. Although it brought huge profits to the capitalists of Western Europe, it is the darkest period in African history. We can say that the slavery in the New World was absolutely dehumanizing, and it’s extremely cruel. It has caused billions of Africans lose their lives and has had a very serious impact on the development of Africa.
In the Americas, the main exports were silver and cash crops, both of which required work that was terribly tedious and exhausting. This led to the overwhelming predominance of slavery in the Americas, since the Europeans were not willing to carry out the hard work themselves. When the Europeans found they lacked a workforce, the sought slaves elsewhere. While the people who were called slaves changed, the institution never did. The same mistreatment, torture, and horrible conditions were evident in American slavery until it was abolished centuries later.
It is stated, “The first half of the eighteenth century…a period of increased purchasing power for laboring people…,” (Mintz, 118). It is this dependency of the English populace to a large influx of sugar which, in line with the supply-demand theory, lowers the price of sugar and makes it more affordable. Where there was not demand, the sugar trade effectively created one. Though not nutritionally beneficial, sugar became a proletarian commodity which helped sustain England’s labor force. However, the increasing dependency reinforced and propelled the enslavement of Africans for the cultivation of the sugar cane in the West Indies.
Europe’s insatiable capitalist quest led to its conquest of many parts of the world, including the Caribbean island and mainland states. The process started with the ‘discovery’ of the West Indies in the late 15th Century by Christopher Columbus, and continued through the Triangular or Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. The need for land for the extension of Europe’s value-added assets resulted in colonisation of the West Indies, while the need for labour to till the soil led to slavery. Colonisation and slavery, therefore, are agents of capitalism. Imperialism is considered the plateau or highest point of capitalism, for imperialism is the conquest of lands and peoples for the imperialist regime’s extension of power and influence.
"The slave trade actually prevented the coming into being of an agrarian revolution in Ghana, and likewise an industrial revolution. Because before you can industrialize you need to have stable agricultural production.” (“Slavery 's long effects on Africa”, para 6) Since during that time they got attacked to kidnap people and burn places they had nothing to start living. “The period between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries was a time of economic stagnation for Africa, which fell further and further behind the economic progress of Europe as the years passed by.” (“Riches & Misery: The Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade”, para 5)