At that time, agriculture production is low because of lack of agricultural knowledge and technological inputs were also low which bind the whole family to work in agriculture fields. After 1750s industrial revolution began and it led to advances in agricultural technology that greatly increased food production, which allow other people to pursue other work. At that time horsepower came into use and machinery like steam engine used in the agricultural process. Tractors were used for ploughing. In 1701 Jethro Tull’s used drill ways of sowing seed in rows, in the place of broadcasting.
Leslie (1988:1350) mainly found that the effect women’s work had was the introduction of complementary feeding practices earlier than women who were not working. Zahiruddin et al. (2016:49) conducted a study in rural Wardha district, India to examine the patterns of complementary feeding for women employed in formal and informal sectors. The majority of selected women were employed in the informal sector and worked in the farms. The results showed that women found it challenging to exclusively breastfeed their children.
Throughout the short story we see an overarching theme of oppression of women for equality because of defined gender roles that society uses to categorize women and men. John Steinbeck does a magnificent job in portraying the characters in different ways that allows them to share different qualities. For example, we see the protagonist Elisa Allen introduced as a wife of a rancher who is strong. The author describes her as a great gardener who loves to garden chrysanthemums that seem to symbolize the mind of Elisa. When we first meet her John Steinbeck introduces her wearing men’s clothing as he states, “Her figure looked blocked and heavy in her gardening costume, a man 'sblack hat pulled low down over her eyes, clod-hopper shoes, a figured
Women played a key role during the Civil Rights Movement, as political and social player. While men thought women were decreasing their actions and their impacts because they were fighting for more personal rights, or at least more focused on women rights. Some of them did a lot for the entire Black community. Mary McLeod Bethune did a lot for her community. According to the biography ‘Mary Jane McLeod Bethune.’ published by the A&E Television Networks, she was born in 1875 in Maysville in South Carolina from a former slave family; she lived her childhood in poverty, picking cotton in the croplands.
In rural areas of the developing world, women play a key role in running households and make contributions to agriculture production. But the inequalities that exist between women and men make it difficult for women to fulfil their potential. According to studies compiled by the United Nations, despite women performing nearly two-thirds of the world’s work, they receive
It ultimately drives the farmers from rural areas to urban areas in search of better life. Again, Kamala Markandaya observes Indian agriculture is passing through a period of severe crisis. Although some features of these crises in agriculture started manifesting themselves in certain parts of south India during pre-independence period, these crises had assumed a serious dimension since the introduction of tanneries in rural areas. There is a general perception that unbearable burden of debt and starvation augmented as a result of natural calamities is indicative of a crisis in Indian agriculture. In this paper, an attempt has been made to find out the causes of the crisis, problems faced by the agriculture sector and at the end how rural tenant farmers overcome these crises for
Ecofeminism, a type of feminist criticism, is a term that combines feminism and ecology. Those who promote ecofeminism say that paternalistic/capitalistic society has led to a harmful split between nature and culture. Loosely defined, ecofeminism is a philosophical and political movement linking ecological concerns with feminist ones, regarding both as resulting from male domination of society. In the beginning of the novel, Markandaya begins to focus on Rukmani’s relationship with the land and her environment. Rukmani begins to tell her story first recalling this moment at the start of her marriage, “While the sun shines on you and the fields are green and beautiful to the eye, and your husband sees beauty in you which no one has seen before, and you have a good store of grain laid away for hard times, a roof over you and a sweet stirring in your body, what more can a woman ask for?” (Markandaya 8).
Among the Apatanis ecological knowledge and skills are sharply distinguished with age and gender. Older women identify the various types of paddy suited to the differing soil and condition and select the pure line seeds. As educated young women move out of the village the workload of older women is increasing. As the burden of food production is dependent entirely on the older women and the ecological knowledge of young educated men and women being frayed the sustainability of the use of resource is becoming difficult. Traditionally only men prepared the fields using spade but now the scenario is changing and many women are now working in the fields using spade.
INTRODUCTION In the past 69 years since independence, several poverty alleviation schemes have been launched in India by the state and central governments. For the betterment of women in rural areas of the country who are quite vulnerable, there are many schemes which can ameliorate their conditions. The Government of India and state authorities alike have increasingly realized the importance of devoting attention to the economic betterment and development of rural women in India. The Indian Constitution guarantees that there shall be no discrimination on the grounds of gender. However, despite all such provisions, rural women have harder lives and are often discriminated against with regard to land and property rights and in access to medical facilities and rural finance.
The title itself spells out the age old wisdom coupled with humbleness on the part of ‘Mother’. The stories deal with the lives and struggles of the madiga community most of who are in agricultural operations, labor activities and cleaning practices. For thousands of years they have remained in the state of exploitation and marginalization in the social order. The writer vividly dramatizes the pain, the struggles and the resistance of the humble characters in their unassumed and natural environs in the yawning face of suppression, exploitation and marginalization. Gogu Shyamala’s short stories in this collection mark a difference from her other writings.