Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties In bountiful places all over the world during the Post-Classical era, between the sixth and thirteenth century, there were many innovations. Especially in China when the three prodigious dynasties thrived; the Sui, Tang, and Song. The Sui, Tang, and Song bestowed numerous changes, along with continuity. Two of the most evident changes during this dynasties were technology and the repercussion of Confucianism and Buddhism on the empires.
The Song Dynasty rose 56 years later after the Tang Dynasty fell. The Song Dynasty in itself was a dynasty which lasted from 960 to 1276, it’s divided into two time periods; The Northern Song(960-1127) and The Southern Song(1127-1279). The Northern Song was an era when the empire was smaller than the Tang Empire. It didn’t control an area of Central Asia that was controlled by the Tang Empire. However the Southern Song Empire wasn’t any better and controlled only about 60% of the land area that the Northern Song empire had been controlling.
China, up until the Qin Dynasty, consisted of independent states controlled by kings fighting each other for land and power. This time period was called The Era of Warring States, which lasted two hundred years. After this time, the Qin Dynasty rose to power. They conquered all other dynasties, and established a centralized government, unifying China for the first time. The dynasty that succeeded the Qin, the Han, continued the centralized government and they started a westward expansion that would encourage trade and cultural diffusion.
Different periods throughout China’s history have different names, known as dynasties, for the diverse positions within its society. Theoretically, all of the periods are similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the average everyday people being under regular Chinese law. Throughout China’s history, the society has been organized into a hierarchic system of socio-economic classes, known as the four occupations. The four occupations system seems to have become distorted after the commercialization of Chinese culture during the Song Dynasty. Even though the social rankings within the country are not as predominant as they once were, the people living within the country still know their “place” within the society.
Between 100 CE and 300 CE, the Han Dynasty had set important cultural foundations, such as Confucianism, constant, which lasted even after the rule of the Dynasty due to literature. The cultural changes led to a period of peace and economic prosperity; however, the political changes, such as unequal control of land between the rich and poor, had resulted in the Empire’s collapse by 220 CE, and it led to the Three Kingdoms Period (ends in 280 CE). The interior government was corrupt because of the civil service exams and the outer court system. Wealthy people had taken advantage of their power in order to get power. The court systems and the elite class became more focused on the luxuries of ruling rather than the duties of ruling.
The Ming and Qing dynasties were two of many dynasties in China. They were also in fact, the last two dynasties. The Ming dynasty ruled from 1368-1644, and the Qing empire ruled from 1644-1912. Both dynasties had long lasting eras of power because of strong framework from influential leaders. The Ming dynasty had Zhu Yuanzhang who was a successful war leader.
The second problem was military. Scholar- bureaucrats generally had little military education and little talent for military affairs, yet they led Song armies in the field and made military decisions. It was not coincidence that nomadic peoples flourished along China 's northern border throughout the Song dynasty. From the early tenth through the early twelfth century, the Khitan, a seminomadic people from Manchuria, ruled a vast empire stretching from northern Korea to Mongolia. During the first half of the Song dynasty, the Khitan demanded and received large tribute payments of silk and silver from the Song state to the south.
Regardless of social class or wealth, rich or poor, women in the 1930’s China were always inferior to men. Women were treated more like objects and possessions rather than humans, when it came to marriage. Women had no say in almost anything, they couldn’t object or disapprove a marriage they were matched in, most were treated with little or no respect from their husbands, the ones that were treated with respect were a rare bunch. Even women from the highest class, had once been treated as mere servants to their needy husbands, only to do nothing but obey, in the name of honor, luck, wealth, and reputation for their families.
Throughout the 16th century Reformation through the Enlightenment in the 18th century, was a period of time that saw both change and continuation in European society. One of the biggest examples of this was the role of women and how they should function in European society. Women in this era faced a large amount of hardships and obstacles from great leaders and philosophers such as Martin Luther and Immanuel Kant, who were both against the equality of women to men at this time. From the time period of the 16th century Reformation all the way up to the Enlightenment in the 18th century, the women of Europe were viewed as fragile and unworkable women whose main priority and purpose should only be being a housewife. As time progressed, women
The first one is the contradiction between farmers and landlord, also a contradiction between farmers and new dynasty. The fierce confrontation between farmers and old dynasty, landlord tends to ease at the start of a new dynasty. If the new dynasty rulers adopted a series of policies to ease the conflict, such as minimal tax burden, straighten officialdom, austerity, etc., it can resume production and economic prosperity. Examples include the prosperity during the reign of Wen and Jing Emperors of the Western Han Dynasty, Golden Years of Zhenguan, peak of Tang prosperity during Kaiyuan, and booming and golden age of the Qing dynasty.
In the colonial era, women did not have many rights, and people did not consider them as equals to men, especially in Puritan New England where the Puritan beliefs governed society. Society expected women to get married, have children, and obey their husbands; they considered anything outside of these limitations as radical confrontations to the law. The woman’s main contribution to society was to teach the young girls about the customs and appropriate behaviors of a woman (Jolliffe, Roskelly, 242.45). Strict barriers existed in a woman’s life, and if a woman were to break those boundaries, like Anne Hutchinson - a revolutionary Puritan spiritual advisor - did, critics accused them of being non-compliant and harmful to society. They considered