The research question for the thesis is,
“What pros and cons arise from current TBI-based methods and would one sound method suffice for TBI detection (and possibly dating), whilst being acceptable for forensic settings?”
In an attempt to answer this question, a criteria list has been formulated using the most relevant indicators for an apt scientific method and the Daubert guidelines. These guidelines determine the usability of a technique for evidence investigation and use in court. The advantages and disadvantages vary with each method depending on the criteria. Upon comparison of methods and the vast literature investigating these methods, it is evident that one technique is not always sufficient to determine and date TBI reliably. Rather, a combination of methods would be better in producing accurate results and avoid subjectivity.
PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TBI DUE TO PHYSICAL ABUSE …show more content…
This dynamic and heterogeneous process begins at time of impact and progresses over time, whereby sequelae are mostly seen even several years post-impact (Currie, 2015). TBI can be either closed (blunt/non-missile/non-penetrating) or open (missile/penetrating). The former, typical in physical abuse, does not breach the dura mater whereas in the latter, the scalp, skull, meninges and brain tissue are penetrated. Heterogeneity of brain damage in TBI arises from differing nature and severity of injury, but is basically categorized as primary and secondary insults (Finnie,
People cannot diagnose CTE until an autopsy has taken place, and they diagnose it with Tau protein. CTE is believed to have four stages that affect the human body. These stages are dangerous because many victims think it’s normal aging, and then they catch it too late (“What is CTE”). The first stage might not come until months to years after the head trauma. This stage includes bad headaches and
While a severe concussion will normally be referred to as a traumatic brain injury or TBI, normal concussions are referred to as being mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) due to the fact that a single injury of this type will not typically cause any serious long term health consequences. Several repeated mild traumatic brain injuries, however, may lead to the life-changing and potentially debilitating condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).” Recent evidence suggests that concussions are caused by rotational motion, rather than forward and backward
Short: Concussions and neurodegenerative conditions Descriptive: Modern studies point the link between concussions and the development of neurodegenerative conditions Summary: People who experience a concussion encounter problems with memory and concentration during the whole life. Recent studies confirm that concussions can lead to development of neurodegenerative conditions, such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease later in life. Injuries of the nervous system are of great importance. They are common in war, but also in peacetime, particularly because of the large number of road accidents and accidents at work nowadays. A concussion is a minor brain injury caused by mechanical forces that lead to temporary brain dysfunction.
“Long-term effects of concussions are very rare. Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause symptoms similar to a concussion, but individuals with TBIs often experience more severe problems with attention and short-term memory, have difficulty performing daily tasks, and report feeling ‘slower’ overall” (Long-term Effects of Brain Injuries). Brain injuries can always improve, but may never completely go away. “Difficulty making decisions or processing a lot of information, or trouble resolving problems, can have a significant impact on one 's life” (Long-term Effects of Brain Injuries). The matter is very serious and impacting the lives of many athletes around the world.
Compelling Evidence In today’s society, high-tech gadgets and the media have given the impression the essential necessity for forensic evidence in order to convict. Once in a while, cases like the Laci Peterson murder come along with little forensic evidence but a whole lot of circumstantial evidence and motive. In the following paragraphs, I will discuss the forensic evidence discovered that led to the conviction and death sentencing of Laci’s husband, Scott Peterson.
Brain Injury in Professional Football A reportable concussion had been described as change in brain function induced by trauma. It was demonstrated by: first, altered consciousness, including being amnesic, confused, or rendered insentient. Second, symptoms and signs usually accompanying post-concussion syndrome, such as, persistent headaches, impaired balance, syncope, cognitive dysfunction, hearing loss, blurred vision, drowsiness, lethargy, fatigue, memory disturbance, and difficulty in carrying out routine activities (Casson, Viano and Powell 471). The Concussion Legacy Foundation disclosed that CTE, a degenerative brain disease caused by brain trauma, had been diagnosed among football players from more than 100 college football programs (Concussion Legacy Foundation).
Axon tearing occurs in more severe brain injuries, but proof is lacking for this mechanism in concussion. It is more likely that concussion is due to rotational acceleration of the brain (jiggling of the brain) that produces a disordered metabolic cascade or biochemical injury such as altered metabolism of glucose or derangement of adenine nucleotides. It is still uncertain where in the brain concussion occurs, or the exact origin of the symptoms of acute concussion. (Tator,1) There needs to be more scientific studies to help provide the mechanisms of a concussion and figure out more information about the exact mechanisms of a concussion.
More now than before, athletes are being extremely cautious when there is trauma to the brain. After multiple cases of poor treatment, parents and doctors are taking control of an epidemic of untreated concussions. As more studies advance, it is discovered that every case is different. The range of seriousness is created by severity, past experience with trauma, and how the patient heals. Concussions in sports can range in severity, and how they affect each individual over time depending on times of impact.
Trace Examination is A Science Trace examination is a vital branch of forensic science that involves the examination and comparison of tiny physical evidence that is often found at a crime scene or on a victim’s body. Trace This field of forensics has a rich history that dates back to the late 19th century when scientists began using microscopy to identify and compare trace evidence . Ever since then, trace evidence analysis has become essential in efforts for identifying and linking possible suspects to crime scenes. Today, trace examination continues to play a critical role in criminal investigations, and advancements in technology have expanded the capabilities of this important forensic science. This paper will ultimately provide not
In forensics, this thought process can affect how a professional conducts standard forensic procedures. Impact of
More now than ever athletes are being watched out for when there is trauma to the brain. After multiple cases of poor treatment to concussions parents and doctors are cracking down on letting concussions not be a big deal. As more studies advance, it is discovered that every case is different. The range is created by severity, past experience with trauma, and how the patient heals. Concussions in sports can range in severity, and how they affect each individual over time depending on times of impact.
However, as a way to overcome or limit the impact of this challenge, Rueben et al (2005) offered suggestions that can be adopted. This include; investigators only focusing on acquiring, examining and reporting on the data that is relevant to the case at hand. To determine relevant data, focus on the peculiar nature of the case and knowledge of the investigator can be criteria for making this judgment. As forensics involves working with data to generate relevant evidence, the possibility of applying the appropriate technology is key to ensuring