The first Ecumenical Council: A dispute over the nature of Christ had started at the time of Constantine and had become critical. The bishop of Alexandria considered God and Christ to be same while Arius did not agree, arguing that Christ and God are not the same substance. Common man became involved in the issue making the situation more critical and finally fights broke out on the streets and issue demanded attention. It was this point of time when Constantine called the first ever ecumenical council that called bishops from all over the World to end the dispute through debates. The council took place at Nicaea and declared Nicene Christianity to be authentic and orthodox in 325 AD.
When Vikings would invade they broke the defence wall and even took treasure as well as food (Document 8). During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church was the leading power , as a result Christianity became the official religion. The church gave structure to Europe however, the church was a fraudulent place. They would tax lower class citizens and exploit them. Supposedly, the
Without a consistent form of communication, trade, during the Middle Ages, was the biggest catalyst for the spread of religious reform, political organization, and societal development across Europe. How was the spread of these elements through trade important in the development of a more advanced, and modern society during this time period? The advancement of the Frankish Kingdom combined with the progress of the Mongols through Asia provided the proper situation to cultivate advancement in the Eastern World. Charlemagne came to power, and immediately it was clear that he was determined to make religious changes in Europe. He defeated the Pagan Saxons after a long brutal conflict with them, annexing all of Germany into his kingdom.
The crusades were a religious dispute between Christianity and Islam that took place in order for the Christians to take back their holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. Urban II initiated the crusades at the Council of Clermont through a speech, with an audience of noblemen and clerics. His main goal was to urge “European princes to stabilize Christendom’s borders and then go further to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian rule to the holy land” (Bentley et al. 422). These expeditions sparked new political, religious, and economic developments for the world.
The Scottish king began taking land in the North east of England bordering Henrys II kingdom, he had to regain all the land that had been taken by the Scottish king in steepens reign. If he allowed the king to keep the land it would have made him looked weak. Additionally the Church was a major problem for Henry II Stephen gave so much power to the church Henry had to regain the power to stop the church from having too much control. Henry II right to the throne was his “Divine right” if the church was seen as discounted from the king by the people they would have rebelled because at this point in time the church was a big factor in people lives Henry faced many problem becoming king which were largely due to Stephen and his lack of control. Henry II effectively dealt with many of the situations which lead him to assert his
For example battle of Dorel against the Turks and Seljuk on 1 July 1097, when a small amount of crusaders won a crushing victory over many thousands of Muslims. Obviously Urban II was important figure during the First Crusade. He knew how to persuade people, so that they believed that he was right. That is why morale was a strong weapon of Christians, which was very useful to achieve their goal. Interestingly some historians like John Ward said that the First Crusade and following campaigns is a “movement of violent white supremacist colonialism”.
This was a radical idea in the middle ages, the Age of Faith. Although Frederick allowed religions to be practiced in his empire, he began to dismantle the power the Church had in the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick II was determined to have a more secular government, even if it meant going against the pope. He was able to attain his goal
The Protestant Reformation was a time period of upheaval, conflict, and most importantly change and religious change being one the most significant changes. The Reformation had a huge impact on religion and the era shaped the understanding of Heaven and Hell. Martin Luther and John Calvin were main contributors to developing and creating religious ideals during this time. They were influential because Luther and Calvin both opposed the religious the traditional views of the time. The Catholic Church was being challenged for the first time during this time and altering the beliefs of people.
The second reason why Europe was in a Dark Age is because of the crusades. For example, The emperor from the Byzantine empire asked Pope Urban from the Holy Roman Empire. The Pope answered and accepted the emperor cry for help. After the Pope had his people help the emperor of Byzantine he ordered his people to take over Jerusalem because he
Cromwell's time as Lord Protector changed how the Crown and Parliament interacted and worked with each other. His army laid the foundation for the Army's in England that came after. And he changed the landscape of religion in the isles, strengthening the Protestant majority and tearing down the Irish Catholics. His crusade against Charles the I and subsequent reign inspired the American colonists to go against military dictators. Though his time as a leader is remembered both negatively and positively his influence cannot be