The Importance Of Bioindicator Species

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Industrialization, intensification of agriculture and development of human lifestyle in general during the last decades have led to increasing amounts of various chemical compounds in our environment. As a result of anthropogenic activity, the input of contaminants to the ecosystem constitutes a serious and growing problem that may exert toxicological effects on humankind and all the living organisms (Tabassum et al. 2016).
Field studies on ecotoxicological effects are useful to identify bioindicator species and assess the quality of the environment (Sánchez-Chardi et al. 2009). Kekkonen et al (2012) attest that wild birds are a good bioindicators of anthropogenic pollution, due to their sensitivity to pollutants. Particularly, passerine birds have been shown to provide good bioindicators for industrial contamination monitoring (Belskii et al. 2005; Rainio et al. 2013).
Some passerine such as the Hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus x Passer hispaniolensis) are sedentary and distributed worldwide (Summers-Smith 1988; Herrera- Dueñas et al. 2014). However, a major decline of sparrows has been reported during the last decades (Summers-Smith 1999; Crick and Siriwardena 2002; De Laet and Summers-Smith 2007). Different causes have been proposed to explain this decline. Summers-Smith (1999) suggested that pollution may be the most probably cause, especially in urban environments. Those small passerines are recognized as one of the most reliable models for biomonitering programs

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