Grammar is a system and structure of language. To me grammar is more than just knowing the rules and standards; it is being able to apply them in writing. Growing up I was taught all of the grammar rules through many grammar worksheets. However, my Pedagogical Grammar class gave me a new outlook on how to teach grammar. I will use strategies learned from my peers, research, experience, and my grammar class to explain how I will teach my students grammar.
2.1 Introduction to Interactive Read Aloud Interactive Read Aloud is an important learning activity for building knowledge required by students to be successful in reading (Lippman, 1996). According to Fountas and Pinnell (2006, Cited in Johnston, 2015), Interactive Read Aloud is a deliberate and explicit method of reading aloud where the teacher models for the whole class vocabulary development, reading fluently, and comprehension strategies and requires the students to involve in the discussion by giving some questions. As the result, the students become interactive participants in their own learning. Interactive Read Aloud also can be defined as an activity that makes children learn new words and ideas as
Reflection 1 Research has shown literacy is one of the most important but most complex subject taught within the education system (Bickart &Dodge, 1999). However despite it’s complexity it is still one of the most important subject, because the lack of literacy skills affect all other subject area. “Language is critical for learning across the curriculum” (Copple, Bredekamp, Koralek &Charner, 2013). Language is important because language has various function, it works as expression for feeling, as mediator in thought and it helps to provide mental representation (Copple, Bredekamp, Koralek &Charner, 2013). It is also proven that language develop rapidly during the early childhood years (Copple, Bredekamp, Koralek &Charner, 2013).
According to Glass and Zygouris-coe (2006) Directed reading thinking activity (DRTA) engages students in a step-by-step process that guides students through understanding and thinking about the text. Therefore, DRTA strategy promotes active reading. 2.8.3 Activate prior knowledge DRTA strategy involves prediction phase, whereby students need to predict before reading each section of the text. It activates students’ prior knowledge and experiences. Ningtas (2015) mentioned that in prediction phase students are encouraged to use context clues and set up the purpose of reading.
The Interactive Model The interactive model takes into consideration the continuous interaction between The bottom-up and The top-down processing in the text's meaning building (p: 93-100) . 4. Reading Strategies Many researchers in the area of reading strategies studies have used different types of strategies; these strategies are as follows: predicting, inferring, self- monitoring, and summarizing, where they are more effective, useful and beneficial for students. 1. Predicting: This reading strategy includes thinking about what might be coming next in the text, where the effective reader can apply it before beginning reading by using pictures, texts, headings and his / her personal experience in order to make predictions .
Some have argued that language acquisition device. Some have argued that language acquisition device provides children with a knowledge of linguistic universals, such as the existence of word order and word classes; others, that it provides only general procedures for discovering how language is to be learned. But all of its supporters are agreed that some such notion is needed in order to explain the remarkable speed with which children learn to speak, and the considerable similarity in the way grammatical patterns are acquired across different children and languages. Adult speech, it is felt, cannot of itself provide a means of enabling children to work out the regularities of language for themselves, because it is too complex and disorganized. However, it has proved difficult to formulate the detailed properties oflanguage acquisition device in an uncontroversial manner, in the light of the changes in generative linguistic theory that have taken place in recent years; and meanwhile, alternative accounts of the acquisition process have evolved.
For instance, learners cannot understand a reading passage if they do not have an adequate vocabulary and do not have the skills to guess meaning from context. In summary, vocabulary knowledge is an essential component of learning a second language for several reasons. Both native speakers and learners recognize the importance of getting the words right because lexical errors are numerous and disruptive. Thus, it is important for learners to have good lexical skills in order to produce sentences and to understand them correctly (Gass & Selinker, 2001). One way to decrease the problem is to help students in becoming independent learners during the process of second language vocabulary learning (Maleki, 2010).
Introduction This critical response is based on two articles on different approaches and issues in teaching grammar for young learners in the primary ESL classroom. In the 21st century, English has been known as a global language. In order to master this language, it is essential to learn the grammar of this language, so that this can help to enhance the competency in English. Grammar can be taught covertly and overtly depends on the techniques that the educators used. The educator chooses to use songs to reinforce the learning of Subject Verb Agreement (SVA); we can conclude that the educator uses covert approach to reinforce grammar.
Vocabulary: Vocabulary plays a main role in any language learning course. The Crackerjack introduces vocabulary in two main ways: Productive vocabulary is presented through grammar, writing and speaking activities and receptive vocabulary is introduced through listening and reading. Guessing meaning from context, the use of a dictionary and conveying the meaning as Plus 1 vocabulary is fostered in this course. The course encourages teachers to give students more responsibility on their own learning