Governments throughout the world intervene in the health sector. It is hardly for any economic activity to be free from the government intervention. In Malaysia, the government intervention shown in the three main categories, including provision of goods and services, redistribution and regulation under the dominant scopes of financing, production or delivery as well as regulation of healthcare industries (Folland, Goodman, & Stano, 2010). Undeniably, there are many factors could motivate intervention in healthcare by the government such as equity, efficiency and monopoly power. It is true that all these factors are arises due to the existence of market failure which acts as an economic rationale for government intervention.
The first type of universal health care is a single-payer system. In single-payer health care system the “government provides insurance for all residents and pays all health care expenses except for copays and coinsurance” (Munro, Forbes.com). With this type of coverage the government is completely responsible for the citizen’s medical bills and paying the doctors. The government gets the funding from the people when they pay their taxes. The second type of universal health care is the two-tier system.
A healthcare system’s primary intent is to provide medical assistance to the general public. Various organisations, skilled staff and resources make up a healthcare system. Their aim is to prevent, protect and care for the people. A healthcare system is needed to defend people against rising illnesses, treat people with illnesses, improve life expectancies, reduce mortality rates, etc. Sustainable healthcare is providing medical assistance to the people using physical, financial and human resources efficiently and economically, while emitting the least possible amount of carbon emissions.
Now I will discuss some basic things. All men are created equal, as it states in the Declaration of Independence, but it does not say that all have a right to healthcare ("Declaration of Independence," 2018). I believe that this answers the question that there is not a moral obligation for all to receive healthcare benefit. For those that need healthcare, there are clinics, community resources and government healthcare available for the needy. This is where the government already is helping.
And also the treatments for cancer like chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It does not include general out-patient clinics, general practitioners and payment of the drug. If you want to join top up components like dental, out-patient, maternity, you need to pay more premiums. General out-patient clinics and general practitioners are the community-based primary care services and it is the most common services that some elderly, low income patients and the patients which have chronic diseases always use. Unlike the Surgery service or some Specialist Out-patient Clinics, it also the medical services that all the citizen can use.
To quote Mahatma Gandhi “It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold or silver.“ It is true – health is our greatest treasure. Most people understand the importance of health and wants to save it. Others start taking care of it only when it starts to slip out of their hands. In mos cases health servises is our only choice in ensuring well-being for ourselves. A specialised organisation whitch is responsible for ineternational public health is WHO – World Health Organisation.
With the advance of medical technology, we have various medical specialties nowadays. In fact, in our current setting, most specialities work independently. Our communication usually solely based on referral letter from sending practitioner. A study done in United Kingdom among 136 incident reports about referral letter; 73% were found to be harmful and 15% were found to be moderate harm or worse. In addition, 76% percent of the incident reports are due to medical practitioner error who failed to send complete referral letter or not recognizing that patient required primary care such as for heparin injection and medications.
Since according to Hippocratic Oath (North, 2002) which is for physician to swear, by a number of healing gods, to uphold specific ethical standards. In Oath, writer have mentioned that “First do no harm” that means all physician may not be do anything that may hurt the patient including withdrawing treatment, taking action to end somebody’s life. And all health related workers in Hong Kong are asked to follow this rule. Base on the definition of VPE, applying it on patient seems to be infringe the principle. Also, the duty of physicians is more likely to save patient instead of stop patient to life ether patient is voluntary nor not.
Endowment Policy This policy are liquid in nature and it insurances the risk for a particular time. An option for policy holder to add accidental riders will be given when they pay marginal premium. This policy is also risk free because it does not have interest rate risk or investment risk. Plus, unlike many life insurance policies, this policy does not need a medical exam to qualify for and endowment life insurance policy (Fontinelle, 2015). 4.
In addition Bruton, Banerji, and Hill (1996) explains how Botswana has avoided market failure, example in the health sector the government identified equity as the market failure. According to Rabin (2003), market failure examines the operation of the economy and prescribes government intervention when markets “fail” on the grounds of either economic efficiency or equity. The government believed that if health care was left to the market, it would be much better in urban areas than for the rural areas and for very poor Batswana everywhere (Bruton, Banerji, & Hill, 1996). So the government intervened and insisted that basic health care should be available to everyone and that no one should have superior care, at least within the borders of the country (Bruton, Banerji, & Hill, 1996). To continue Bruton, Banerji, and Hill (1996), explain that the state intervention in the market has corrected market failure, which shows how the private sectors being the market would not have been able to meet the health care objectives, the private sectors could not have turned out sufficient nurses without the help of government support.