1.0 INTRODUCTION Forced Migration is becoming one of the biggest and most complex problems in the 21st century. The International Organization for Migration defines forced migration as any person who migrates to "escape persecution, conflict, repression, natural and human-made disasters, ecological degradation, or other situations that endanger their lives, freedom or livelihood”. The total number of people forcibly displaced worldwide has reached 45.2 million in 2012, according to a report published by the UNHCR.Rohingya, a Muslim Bengali-speaking, ethnic group that live in Rakhine State, on Myanmar’s western coast. They are fleeing oppressive conditions in Myanmar or being migrated forcedly, where they are unconditionally denied citizenship
This region has witnessed some of the most extreme violence and conflict especially in Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi and DRC. In the year 2004 over 3.9 million internally displaced people(IDPs) and refugees staying in around 300 refugee camps administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR 2005). The UNHCR which has been funded by donor states, private donors and international organizations, functions as the guardian of international refugee law. The international community was totally unprepared for the Great Lakes crisis that happened in Zaire (now DRC) following the most terrible genocides in the world history: the 1994 Rwanda Genocide (Wagner,
The intensified post-election clampdown led to a second exodus. Some 250,000 Rohingya crossed into Bangladesh, while another 15,000 ultimately made their way to Malaysia.”15 But in accordance with the policy of Bangladesh, the prima facie recognition of Rohingyas closed with a registration cut-off date in mid-1992. The Rohingyas arrived or returned after the cut-off date are not able to receive the status of refugees and are not permitted in the camps.16 So Bangladesh has closed its door to the “least wanted”17 people of the world, saying they are not Bangladeshis. About 30,000 registered Rohingyas, supported by the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, are in Bangladesh. Informally, there are 200,000 unregistered Rohingya in Bangladesh.
It is estimated that Bangladesh is having an average of 32,000 registered refugees and more than 200,000 unregistered (according to UN High Commissioner for Refugees). Moreover, in Malaysia there are more than 137,000 refugees including Rohingya. The violence events are not just affecting the Rohingya; however, they are also affecting the other Burmese citizens. Indonesia had recently made some immigration restrictions to in order to increase the number of Burmese immigrants, as during the last events Indonesia had more than 2000 Rohingya refugees. For Malaysia, the Rohingya refugees take a boat to Bangladesh and then move on foot to Malaysia.
Three groups have already departed Papua New Guinea and Nauru, after a long and drawn out assessment in regards to the eligibility and vulnerability of said asylum seekers. One complication is the travel ban, reinstated by POTUS Donald Trump, which excludes several nationalities from entering the United States – especially Iranians and Somalians. In fact, Iranians actually make up the largest group of refugees from the two detention centres. Although this one-time resettlement agreement was made to help the asylum seekers detained on Manus Island and Nauru, Australia in exchange agreed to accept refugees from violence-plagued countries in Central America, who are currently being detained in US-run camps in Costa Rica. With the eventual 1,250 refugees supposed to be settled in the United States, some relief should be provided but that number does not encompass all those who lived in those detainment
The 1978 “Operation King Dragon” was a watershed moment in the history of the Rohingya people. While tensions have always existed since the 1950s where ethnic Rakine and Muslim communities demanded autonomy from the Myanmar government (Smith, 1999), “Operation King Dragon” culminated in legislative action that stripped all Rohingya of citizenship in 1982. Since then, there have been intermittent moves by the Myanmar state to impose forced labour, inflict violence and enforce policies of discrimination on the Rohingya. Such patterns of persecution have continued till today, and have actually worsened as Myanmar undertakes democratic reforms. This has resulted in many Rohingya being targeted for killing and increased the number of refugees seeking refuge in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Singh, 2014).
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES [TO WHAT EXTENT SHOULD COUNTRIES BE MORALLY OBLIGATED TO GIVE ASYLUM TO REFUGEES?] AMITH SARANYU D.S 10 IGCSE DECCAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL “ Turning back boats full of people seeking asylum in their hour of need is not fair.” - Councilor Linda Scott. RATIONALE I chose this topic because I read an article on the Internet stating that the refugee crisis worldwide has displaced 60 million people from their homes since the end of World War II pushing asylum to their limits. That article stated the threat countries are facing as they are fleeing from countries like Syria and Iraq to places like Central America and Africa to seek asylum. I want to research whether countries should be morally obligated to give asylum to refugees.
Coupled with lax enforcement and the absence of an effective mechanism to manage migrant workers, has resulted in millions of foreigners outstaying their employment contracts (Lek 2016). On the other hand, the foreign workers also confronting with high risk of xenophobic threats and a terrible racial discriminations by the Malaysian government (Aw 2016). Hays explained that the foreign workers are barred from marrying local women, opening bank accounts, changing jobs or traveling. He quoted the founder of the Tenaganita group, Irene Fernandez, saying that the foreign workers are constantly stopped, questioned and arrested even when they have valid documents. During a 1998 "Operation Get Out" campaign, illegal workers were rounded up and placed in detention centers.
The violent ideological conflict that separates one group of people from the other may be the reason why more than a half of Bangladesh is poor, backward and is struggling to survive. The poet enters Bangladesh from the eastern front. His first interface with Bangladesh begets an impression of a landscape suffering and tottering in economic poverty, corruption, and underdevelopment. At the Akhaura Check Post, the enthusiasm with which the poet and his friend Murasingh entered Bangladesh received a serious dent as they saw the road conditions and the traffic after paying “a hundred and thirty takas” to the Land Customs Officer for permission to cross the border. There was complete chaos on the road as nobody obeyed any traffic rule.
Constitutional Liberalism: An Emerging Challenge to Democracy in Bangladesh Introduction In recent decades democracy has declined noticeably around the world. Bangladesh is not an exception to this global trend. Diamond observes Bangladesh has faced the breakdown of democracy two times from 2000 to 2014. During 2014, it was the breakdown of the electoral process (Diamond 2015) where the opposition boycotts the election. According to the Freedom House Report 2014, the political rights of the country declined from 3 to 4 due to the controversial election and political violence to the opposition parties.