Victims, Victimization and Victimology: A Socio-Legal Study Dr. (Mrs.) Ravidankaur R. Karnani Assist. Professor & I/c. Principal, Law College, Palanpur firstname.lastname@example.org, 7990980278 Abstract For many decades, the victim was the forgotten party in the criminal justice system as the main focus was that the perpetrator of a crime should be punished. But the victims of crimes stand poised equally in the scales of justice as the victim is not a passive object but an active component of the whole judicial process.
The theories relate to Carla 's case of victimization would be, lifestyle theory posits that individuals place themselves in harm’s way by their lifestyle choices. Carla put herself in harm’s way by jogging at night by herself. Her may have lived a risking lifestyle she clearly liked smoking weed with her boyfriend. Also Deviant place theory would work to because Carla doesn’t live in bad area. The area’s around Carla’s house was safe but Casey lived in a dilapidated apartment complex that was mostly hidden off the main road, between a bar called Bikers-R-Us and a two-story county office complex used by probation officers and drug rehab counselors. That’s where Carla found herself in a bad area, therefore putting herself at risk to become a
Researchers have invested decades worth of time and data, attempting to answer the question of what causes crime. The study of criminological theory contains a great number of explanations, focused on discovering why exactly, crime occurs. Whether causations are biological, psychological, or sociological in nature, theory has lead us closer to answering the question of why crime happens. Perhaps causations are best explained using hybrid explanations that include a little bit of everything. A significant part of theory focuses on delinquency and the domino like effect of deviant behavior that results for children into adulthood. According to the United States government, 25-33% percent of school aged children are subject to the victimization
Abstract In 1982, President Ronald Reagan created the President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime in order to address the needs of millions of Americans and their families who were victims of crime every year. The task force goal was to review the policies and programs that affected crime victims and then advise the president along with the Attorney General of any actions that was needed in order to improve efforts in assisting and protecting victims. The findings showed a lack of compensation and services for crime victims including a large imbalance between a defendant’s rights and those of the victim. As a result, the task force made many recommendations to both the President and Attorney General (U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Courts
Victimization is difficult situation to handle both as a victim and those attempting to provide follow-up care, although there are certain sections of the population that despite being more likely to become a victim are also harder to help. Individuals with disabilities, mental illness, or those who are convicts tend to slip through the cracks in regards to victimization.
Thus Geer coined the term, criminal victimization and provided characteristics of the ideal victim for crime news. What is the ideal victim? Researches find that the individuals that fall under the ideal victim are legitimate enough to garner sympathy from viewers; and that legitimized victims vary from important social aspects such as their status, sex, age. Typical victims shown in television are the elders and children, for they are commonly perceived as
According to Andrews and Bonta (2010) the psychology of criminal conduct ( PCC) can be defined as an approach to scientifically understand the criminal behavior of individuals through a systematic approach. Additionally, the psychology of criminal conduct is considered to be interdisciplinary, and considers all aspects of science that will assist in the further comprehension of an individuals criminal behavior, and the causes of criminal behavior (Andrews and Bonta , 2010). Andrews and Bonta ( 2010) stated that the psychology of criminal conduct can be considered a subfield of criminology and psychology due to common beliefs and common interests with both disciplines. Furthermore, the psychology of criminal conduct can be described as using
In today's society crime tends to be more present in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Not all neighborhoods start out as a heavily violent one. Each neighborhood goes through a cycle to gain the negative reputation it has to this day. When there is a change, not everyone can adapt as well. With changes comes industries pushing local out of their homes, then a decrease in opportunities to works and this eventually leads to people competing with each other. Crime has a significant impact that leaves a negative reputation for all who live in that particular neighborhood. When using the social disorganization theory as a base, it is seen through rapid change, competition, and social structure, that poor neighborhoods tend to have a higher level
Both, the Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey addresses how we should shape policies yearly. Throughout the UCR report, crime index offenses are the ones being reported such as violent crimes of murder and non-negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, arson and etc. The crime report itself involves around 17,000 law enforcement agencies reporting yearly. Not to Mention, one of the differences between the two, is that the UCR reports crimes known to the police which is why the NCVS crime report was created to allow the statistics to be more accurate by allowing victim citizens to anonymously mention their crime experiences that were not reported to the police. The fact that both, provide us with crime statistics
Theories help answer two very important questions; how and why. The purpose of a theory is to explain how and why certain things and/or events are connected to other things and/or events. Everything done in the criminal justice field is based on theory. In criminology, theories answer questions about criminal behavior that would have otherwise not been answered. Theories give clues to how and why people commit criminal acts. By providing the motives behind criminal activity, theories give criminologists a better understanding of crime (Bohm & Vogel, 2015). Theories of criminal behavior can relate to human nature, biological issues, psychological issues, sociological issues, economic issues, or a collaboration of two or more of these factors.
A theory is a set of statements or principles developed to explain a group of facts or phenomena. It has been repeatedly tested and used to make predictions. Theories in this category attempt to explain why an individual commits a crime or delinquent behaviors. The primary goal of criminological theory is to help one gain an understating of why and how certain things are related to criminal behavior (Bohm and Vogel, 2011). Theories dissect the making and the breaking of the law, criminal different behavior, as well as patterns of criminal activity. Theories can be used to guide policy making and can be weighed on a number of criteria including biological things, psychological things, sociological things, economic things or a combination of
The family is not familiar with the legal system and its processes, but cannot afford to hire an attorney. The warranty corporation has their own team of lawyers to appear on their behalf. They will be able to organize and present their material in a way that gives it legitimacy to a jury and/or judge. The family might have a legitimate claim but do not understand or know to include information that could potentially when their case. This error can lead to a negative outcome for the family who might have won if they had access to a lawyer.
Social process theory depends on the interaction between individuals and society as an explanation and is also known as interactionist perspective. This theory assumes that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic but is instead a belief that criminal behavior is learned by interaction with others (Schmalleger, 2012). Social process feels the socialization process that occurs because of group membership is the main way through which learning occurs (Schmalleger, 2012). Social process theory views criminality as people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society (Siegel, 2000). This theory feels that people from all areas have the potential
Several theories declare the connection between child abuse and crime. One of the earliest theories was originated by Sigmund Freud in 1896. Freud 's Repressed Memories theory shows that abusive memories are indirectly stored in the victim 's subconscious. In other words, a subject blocks out painful or traumatic experiences. This could lead to hysteria, and other complications in adulthood (Richmond). The Social Learning Theory (SLT) maintains that children develop patterns of violent or delinquent behavior through imitation. For instance, if a child is being beaten at home, then the child will revert to doing so to other children at school. The Social Control Theory (SCT) says that individuals have a natural tendency towards crime and violence
I will be explaining through the seven elements of crime whether illegal drug use, prostitution, and gambling fit the elements (Bohm & Haley, 2011). The seven elements of the crime are harm, legality, actus reus, mens rea, causation, concurrence, and punishment.