Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences. Hence, the attribution is the causal explanation and inference that the observers make to predict and evaluate human behavior. In summary, attribution is seeking causes of results. That is to say, people analyze their own behavior or others by utilizing their perceptions, thoughts, judgments and so on, and then they find out and explain the reasons for those behaviors. Therefore, attribution is an important component of human cognitive process, as well as an important influence on the formation of self-concepts.
According to this theory, the best predictor of behavior is the intention. The intention is the mental representation of a person’s eagerness to perform a certain behavior. A persons’ behavior is determined by their intention to do a behavior and that, this intention leads to a function in their attitude towards another behavior and subjective norms. (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) . TRA also states that people regularly consider the consequences of their behaviors before engaging these behaviors.
The limitations of the TRA led to the development of the TPB by Ajzen (1991) to predict behaviors where people have incomplete or low volitional control. The TPB accounts for factors outside individual control that may affect the development of intention and behavior. (1991) developed the theory of reasoned action through adding construct "perceived behavioral control" into the model as a determinant of behavioral intention and behavior, and called it as "theory of planned behavior". This social-psychological theory with regard to perceptions of performance control, attempts to predict involuntary behaviors, too. It determines the Impacts of three factors, i.e.
He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
TPB added “perceived behavioral control” to the earlier Theory of Reasoned Action (1)( Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). The TPB explains that the key determinants of behavior are intention to engage in that behavior and perceived behavioral control over that behavior. Intentions in the TPB represent a person’s motivation or conscious plan or decision to exert effort to perform the
Internal causes are determined by internal desire while external causes are actions that are forced by something external. When a soft determinist says that someone has freewill, they mean that someone’s actions are a result of their internal causes. Hard determinists argue with this statement by claiming that internal causes are caused by external causes. Although that is true and soft determinists would agree with that and with psychological determinism, however all internal causes are shaped by nature, environment, upbringing and society, ultimately we make the choices that follow our personal desires. David Hume explained it as “power of acting according to the determinations of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest we may; if we choose to move we also may.” This leads to the philosophical definition of freewill.
The theory of reasoned action planned behavior (TPB)was developed by (Ajzen ,2001,1991,1989) and is seen as an exten¬sion of the theory of reasoned action holds that the intention (motiva¬tion) to perform a certain behavior is dependent on whether individuals evaluate the behavior as positive (attitude) and if they judge others as wanting them to perform the behavior (subjective norm). TPB builds on this theory and holds that all behavior is not exe¬cuted under purposeful control and that behaviors lie on a continuum from total control to complete lack of control. Both internal factors (cognitive skills, knowl¬edge, emotions) and external factors (situations or environment) determine the degree of control. TPB is based on the connection between attitudes and behaviors. Behavior is based on and guided by three kinds of beliefs and cognitive
The concept most characteristic of REBT, is the A-B-C framework. The emotional and behavioural consequences (C) of an activating event (A) is mediated by the beliefs (B) that the client has of the event. Hence, disputing (D) these irrational beliefs would cause an effect (E) leading to new feelings (F) and behaviours. Choice theory and “total behaviour” is at the heart of Reality therapy. “Total behaviour” is made up of an individual’s acting, thinking, feeling and physiology.
Furthermore, Cloninger (2008) also tells that ego is working as the major conscious centre to resolve the issues arise from both the impulsive urge of id and the moral restriction from the superego. In a simple way, ego is the information centre of the mind that carries out duties to maintain a harmonious balance between id and superego: first to receive knowledge from internal and external environments, second is to reserve the information either in consciously or unconsciously way and third is to process the information and carry out the decision making to decide a response or a reaction based on the need of id and superego (Goldwater,
Critical Thinking Since critical thinking is a complicated concept, there are different definitions concerning its various aspects. The first definition may be that given by Dewey (1909, as cited in Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012), father of the new tradition in critical thinking, who first called this notion “reflective thinking” and defined it precisely as an “active, persistent, careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the lights of grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends” (p. 154). Alternatively, Glaser (1942) a psychologist, defines critical thinking as an attitude and rational use of skills in problem-solving contexts. Siegel (1988, as cited in Liaw, 2007, p.50) calls critical thinking
The study of attitudes has helped us to further our insight into understanding human behaviour. Models such as the Tripartite model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour provide a structure to how our attitudes influence our behaviour. Attitude is defined as a general feeling of evaluation towards an object/person, positive or negative (Hogg, 2013). The Tripartite Model of Attitudes proposed by Rosenberg and Hovland provides a structure to how our attitudes towards something affect our behaviour. They believe that our attitudes are broken up into Affective, Behavioural and Cognitions.