First, as an educator, we need to emphasized to the learners the importance of learning something in application to their current and future practice. Second, the learners move from being independent and self-directed, enhancing their ability to solve problems on their own and be independent. Third, incorporate learner’s experiences into the learning process. As people mature their amount of experiences expand and serve as a rich resource for learning. Fourth, oriented learning develop when facing real-life problems.
Does learner-centred teaching motivate learners to learn? What is learner-centred teaching? Learner-centred teaching, which at times referred to as student-centred teaching and learner-centred instruction, is a key concept in constructivism; a theory in which "learners construct and reconstruct knowledge, in order to learn effectively" (A. Attard, E. Di Ioio, K. Geven, 2010). Students are the protagonists in learner-centred teaching, unlike teaching-centred teaching in which teachers take the centre stage. In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015).
The model, which is an updated version with more detailed extensions of self-regulated learning components, includes two broad areas which are motivation and learning strategies. The motivation construct fits into the concept of precaution phase in the self-regulation cycle established by Zimmerman (1998) , in which precaution phase indicates the influential processes and beliefs, such as task analysis and self-motivational beliefs, before efforts are put into learning stage. Expectancy refers to students ' belief in the finishing point of a task, and includes two subcomponents, student view of self-efficacy and control belief for learning. Value, showing the reason for a student to involve in a task, is measured based on three subscales such are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, and task value beliefs. Furthermore extrinsic goals are about one 's engagement in a task due to outside rewards or benefits, such as grades or approval from others.
Secondly, there is a self-oriented cyclical process or the feedback circuit during learning in which students can monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or strategies and answer this feedback in a variety of ways; it may be covertly (self-perception) or overtly (behavior). Thirdly, all of these definitions explain why and how students select to apply a special self-regulated process, strategy or
Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
Facilitators can help provide a supportive environment to assist in the process. The facilitator has a role to play in pre and post experience. Learners need to be prepared if they have to make most of their experience. According to Boud and Walker (1999:29) a facilitator can assist learners by introducing them to the context, and help them develop skills and strategies prior to the event. Merriam et al (2007:169) describes the various roles of the facilitator during reflection on action to include (i) encouraging learners to reflect and discuss openly ion the experience, (ii) bringing to light underlying assumptions for reflection, (iii) assessor of learner’s prior experiential learning.
Discovery learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction. Discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves. There are varying definitions of what discovery learning is. A review of the literature suggests that discovery learning occurs whenever the learner is not provided with the target information or conceptual understanding and must find it independently and with only the provided materials. Within discovery-learning methods, there is an opportunity to provide the learners with intensive, or conversely, minimal guidance (Prem Lata 2005) and both types can take many forms (e.g., manuals, simulations, feedback, example problems).
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
Many teaching strategies and learning activities address this notion. For example, Problem-based Learning Theory (an amalgamation of Cognitive and Social Constructivist theories, by Piaget (1920) and Vygotsky (1978), respectively), is a hands-on, active learning technique that lets students be independent thinkers and problem-solvers through investigation, where the teacher is a facilitator. Other models which guarantee student engagement include Discovery Learning by Bruner (1961), Experiential Learning by Kolb (1984) and 21st Century Skills. These models provide maximum opportunities for students to experience with materials and resources, collaborate, socialize, analyse and solve problems related to real life. Teachers can employ instruction which is clear, communicate their objectives vividly, design a plan using a variety of strategies and resources, ask questions frequently and effectively and have brain-storming sessions, attention grabbing starters, pre-while-post technology hands-on, debates, role plays, enquiries, case studies, research, multimedia presentations, group work, simulation by audios and videos, games, interactive plenaries, inventories, quizzes etc.
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.