Constructivism as a learning theory centers its principles on helping the learning process unlike controlling it as in the view of behaviorism (Lober, 2006). Key contributors to the development of this theoretical approach include Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Ernst von Glasersfeld. (Liu & Chen, 2010). The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning.
They also learn from their past experiences that forms as a knowledge base from which they draw learning concepts (Sommers 1989). They require reinforcement to be a part of the learning process so as to correct mistakes in their performance. Hanson (1996) argued that the difference in learning is related to individual characteristics and differs in context, culture and power but not related to the age and stage of one's life. Future of Andragogy
(Dewey, 1916) In this essay, the writer would like to analyze education as the process of receiving and absorbing knowledge of a person at school or university, not self-study. Second, according to Human
Critical Reflection Various definitions can be provided to explain the word “learning”, it is the attainment of knowledge or skills over study, experience, or being taught or as …. says “ ..process of acquiring new skills and knowledge”(*). As Richard S. Newman states “Dealing with academic adversity is a critical part of learning” (Newman, 2002). Which conveys that to learn, it’s a necessity approach academic difficulties. There are numerous techniques of learning which each individual confronts when encountering academic study complications.
Dewey (1859–1952) believed education must engage with an expand experience; those methods used to educate must provide for exploration, thinking, and reflection; and that the interaction with the environment is necessary for learning. He advocated the learning process of experiential learning through real life experience to construct and conditionalize knowledge, which is consistent with the Constructivists (“Constructivism,”). Montessori (1870–1952) emphasized the value of experiential learning to conditionalize knowledge: “Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the
The teacher facilitates learning by responding to the needs of the learner. To be effective, the teacher or presenter needs to tell things the way it is and stress how to do it. Self-directed learners are responsible of their own learning. Knowles et al., 2005, believed that adults need to know why they need to learn and cited the six assumptions of adult learners; need to know, self-concept, experiences, readiness to learn, orientation to learning and motivation.
To achieve this, we need to involve the learners in designing their own learning contracts or learner generated contexts 10,11,12 (learning content, learning context, assessment) with the help of teachers. make the curriculum as well as assessment more flexible2,13,14 The concept of heutagogy is one step forward in shifting the control of learning to the learners and enabling them to engage in life-long learning.15 Heutagogy relies on
One way to improve is by having the learner experience the real word world problem. This is learning by experience. Experiential learning is a well-known model in education. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb, 1984) defines experiential learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience."
A particularly important general distinction concerns whether these individual strategies lead to deep (versus surface) approaches to instruction
In their definition, it emphasizes that learner’s experience nd in – context action as the primary source of learning. Lifelong learning takes place if its directly from life experiences which can be controlled only with each of us. In article Experiential Learning; Experience as the Source of Learning and Development p.51 that the experiential learning cycle is not only the Concrete Experience mode but its referring to all learning cycle. These learning cycle are the modes of grasping experience such s Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC) and modes of transforming such as Reflective Observation (RO) and Active Experimentation (AE). In the Principles of Psychology of James he defined this “My experience is what I agree to
In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under