However, the opposite will occur if the individual perceives there to be inequity. Bennett goes on to suggest that if individuals compare the inputs of their jobs with the outputs experienced, and perceive that they are not paid enough, an individual will reduce their efforts. A drawback to this theory is that it is difficult to measure an individual's perception of equity as well as identifying the inputs and outputs from a job (Kreitner et al,
Intrinsic motivation being employees are interested on the work because it is personally interesting, rewarding, challenging. Job satisfaction and the achievement of your personal goals are some examples of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation being employees work solely for the reason to receive a reward or the outcome. Extrinsic motivated employees are more concerned about the end results (pay raise, benefits, and promotions) than
•The use of this theory is constrained as prize is not specifically connected with performance in numerous associations. It is identified with different parameters likewise, for example, position, exertion, obligation, education, and so on. Implications of the Expectancy Theory The managers can correlate the preferred outcomes to the aimed performance levels.
By identifying the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, the hygiene and motivation factors can be taken, used and soon afterward can be rewarded. Herzberg recognises that true motivation comes from within a person and not from the nature, or outer and other
Identified regulation of behaviour, is one form of autonomous motivation, which describes employees are motivated to behaviour change when they identify its value and importance (Ryan et. al., 2008). Identification is fostered when employees provided the relevant safety knowledge and understand the rationales for safety behaviour change, without applying any external controls and pressures that undermine the motivation. The most autonomous in the internalization continuum, integrated regulation, defines that employees not only values safety behaviour, but has also associated it into its lifestyle patterns and central beliefs. According to SDT, full internalization or integration can be cultivated by supporting employees as they find difficulties and obstacles to behaviour change, and helping them identify consistent behaviour to health (Ryan et.
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom 's expectancy theory separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and outcomes. Vroom 's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee 's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person 's motivation.
The key concept to the social cognitive career theory is self-efficacy, which is the perceived level of confidence in one’s ability to perform various activities related to career planning and development.” A person whose lowest level needs have not been met will make job decisions based on compensation, safety, or stability concerns. Naturally they will revert to satisfying their lowest level needs when these are no longer met or are threatened (such as during an economic downturn). However, with these satisfied, a person will want their higher level needs of esteem and self-actualization met.
I believe that intrinsic motivation is always intrinsically better compared to extrinsic motivation. Berry Schwartz, a behaviorist philosopher notes that learners tend to be responsive when the environment tempts them; for rewards or to avoid punishment. This suggest that extrinsically motivated learners are passive compared to intrinsically motivated learners, whom need not to be moved to perform a task. If the use of rewards and punishments is no longer encouraged, learners whom are extrinsically motivated may feel that learning
Classic theory strengths and drawbacks: Strengths 1) Hierarchical Structure - One of the advantages of the classical management structure is a clear organizational hierarchy with three management levels. 2) Division of Labor - One of the advantages of classical management approach is the division of labor. Employees responsibilities are clearly assigned to them. 3) Monetary Incentive - Employees should be motivated by monetary rewards. In other words, employees will work harder and become more productive if they have an competitive salary.
This objective nature of Motivation is also recommended by Krietner and Kinicki (2001 p.162) put forward that Motivation represents “those psychological procedures that cause the stimulation, persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed”. Mullins (2006) directs that the study of motivation is basically associated, with why people act in a certain way. The underlying question is “why do people do what they do?” in simple words Motivation can be defined as the direction and persistence of action. Motivation is the key ingredient in employee performance and productivity.