The lymphatic system is a network of small thin like tubes as well as nodes of lymph which travel around the body. The thin like tubes are named lymph vessels. The system is important as it has a great link towards the immune system as it is a part of it. It functions by eliminating bacteria as well as other infections even cancerous cells. The tonsils, spleen thymus, and liver make up this system.
It also has a very thick cardiac muscle wall (myocardium), this is because it needs a strong wall to be able to push the oxygenated blood to all areas of the body. The heart also contains (i) The tricuspid and bicuspid valves- these are situated between the atrium and ventricle. It is there to prevent backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium, it is a one way flow of blood. (ii) The septum- this divides the right and left sides of the heart. (iii) Pacemaker- this sends out regular nervous impulses which travel along the axons of the pf the nerve cells out through the walls of the atria.
To use a dialysis machine a tube is inserted into the bloodstream of a patient allowing blood to enter the machine. As shown in Diagram 3, once in the machine the blood flows through tubes and into the dialyzer composed of a semi-porous membrane which works similar to a glomerulus. Blood cells, proteins and other large particles are prevented from passing though while waste products such as urea and salts flow through and are absorbed by sterilised solution called dialysate and are washed away. Dialysate is composed of acidified solution, bicarbonate and purified water. The treated blood is then returned into the bloodstream of the patient.
They work by utilizing a variety of substances to defend the human body against potentially deadly microorganisms (“Vaccine” 1). Vaccines operate by introducing a weakened version of the virus, or a strand of a protein from the bacteria into the immune system. In turn, this insertion causes the production of antibodies which help to fight the actual infection, by attacking the virus upon its entry into the body (“Vaccine” 1-2). Previously, vaccines revolved around observations that humans will develop an immunity to a disease they are exposed to, given they survive (“Vaccine 1). However, vaccinations are far
It affects premature infants because their lungs not fully develop and the lungs don’t have an insufficient surfactant. The surfactant is a complex phospholipid+ protein secreted by type 2 cell. It reduces surface the tension of alveolus. It keeps the alveoli open and prevents a collapse of the alveoli. When the surfactant is inadequate the alveoli will collapse, lung expansion will become more difficult ( compliance).
Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates. When a patient's blood is continuously removed and returned through plastic tubing to allow
Thrombosis Formation Thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within the vascular system. Development of thrombosis after vessel wall injury is characterised by the deposition of platelets, tissue factor and fibrin. A thrombus is a solid or semi-solid mass, which consists of aggregated platelets, that form a platelet plug and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The formation of a thrombus is a healthy response to blood vessel injury intended to prevent blood loss, and is the first step in restoring haemostasis. Blood vessel damage can also be caused by the interaction between a foreign material (medical device) and the endothelium lining of the vessel.
Vena cava filters are small mechanical devices that are positioned in the vena cava with the sole purpose of preventing large blood clots from travelling from the legs to the pulmonary arteries. Clots reaching the arteries of the lungs may cause pulmonary embolism, which is a life-threatening condition. Aneurysms of the aorta as well as dissections may be treated with the use of endoluminal stent grafts. This requires the placement of a reinforcing tube within the affected parts of the
shunt for oxygenated placental blood to bypass the liver), ductus arteriosus (i.e. shunt for oxygenated blood to bypass non-functioning amniotic fluid-filled lungs) and foramen ovale (i.e. passage for oxygenated blood to go from right atrium to the left
Acute deep vein thrombosis can be seen by pain and swelling. Usually acute deep vein thrombosis is occlusive where the clots already obstruct the blood flow. Chronic deep vein thrombosis can be label when there are no symptoms but it found by screening such as ultrasound doppler, CT Scan and blood
A fatty layer called myelin protects the nerve cell fibers by repelling water. The tissues hold more water if the protective myelin is damaged. This shows up on a scan as a white or darkened area, and it can be used to evaluate multiple sclerosis.
Lymphovenous Bypass WHAT IS LYMPHOVENOUS BYPASS? The lymphatic system is not very well known, but it is vital to the operation of the human body. It works alongside the bloodstream absorbing any leaked fluid from the blood vessels, this is known as lymph. Lymph nodes filter the lymph and put it back into the blood, but if these lymph nodes are damaged or removed the result is lymphedema, which is the swelling of a limb creating pain and immobility. Lymphovenous Bypass is a microsurgical procedure that opens pathways for blocked lymphatic vessels in the lymphatic system.
Lysosomes digest the toxins so they can be safely eliminated by the cell. Peroxisomes contain oxidases and catalases that detoxify substances like alcohol and neutralize free radicals. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also contains enzymes that detoxify certain drugs (such as alcohol). 3. Mrs. Fender’s jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in her blood and tissues.
Often we find belly fat but sometimes intestines can pass through the opening. Small hernias (non-reducible), where the contents cannot be put back through the abdominal wall, by pressure under the skin or navel. These seldom cause problems and can often be left alone. It is however recommended that it be checked regularly to ensure the texture, size and color have not changes. If you notice any changes quickly consult with your
When Kawasaki disease develops, the walls of these arteries become inflamed. Inside the blood vessels there is a cell layer called endothelium, it protects the vessel and prevents blood cells from leaving. During Kawasaki disease something triggers and causes the endothelial cells to become activated and causes the cells of the immune system to stick to the endothelium and seep through the blood vessel wall. Inflammation is caused by the immune cells gathering in the wall and sending chemical signals that duplicate more cells and damage the vessel wall. Intravenous gamma globulin interacts with the cells to quiet down the immune response.