Assignment 1 – Unit 11 Physiology of Human Body Systems Task 1 The lymphatic system is the system which is involved in homeostasis in our body by draining the interstitial fluid. It is also in charge of defending our bodies from diseases. This is because the lymphatic system provides the place for formation and maturation of the lymphocytes which the white blood cells involved in immunity which are activate when they are in contact with antigens. Also the lymphatic system stops fluid form building up in the tissues in our body and its acts as a filter for the blood and removes the pathogens and antigens from the blood. Role of the parts: Lymph nodes – Lymph nodes are enclosed, located around the lymph vessels. Lymph nodes are a key organ of the immune system and they make white blood cells which help fight off diseases. They also create antibodies to neutralize infections. They do this by producing lymphocytes protects the body from harmful microorganisms, unknown particles and removes litter from the lymph. Innerbody [online] …show more content…
Like the veins of the circulatory system, lymphatic vessels and vessels move lymph with next to no weight to help with flow. To contribute to the movement of the lymphatic duct, there are a number of ways to check if valves are found in the lymphatic system. This checks if the valves are accepting lymph to manoeuvre to the lymphatic ducts and when the lymph tries get away from the ducts. In the limbs, the skeletal muscles contract and squeeze the walls of the lymphatic vessels to push the lymph through the valves and near the thorax. Within the trunk the diaphragm pushes into the abdomen during inward breathing. The expanded abdominal pressure pushes the lymph into the less tensioned thorax. The pressure gradient turns around amid exhalation, yet the check valves stop the lymph from being pushed
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From these questions that were given out by Dr. Frander, many students should have a great understanding what to expect to the mid-term exam. Dr. Frander really encouraged us to study because most of these questions are difficult. For instance, she gave us an example in a patient who has COPD/ emphysema. What we have concluded from this question what they are looking for the emphysema patients don’t have a problem of taking air in rather they have a problem of taking the air out. The main problem of the emphysema, they have a lot of mucus, and the alveoli which where the gas exchange takes is impaired.
Halloween, donating blood or suffering from a cut, you probably don't give much thought to blood on a regular basis. This fluid that flows through our bodies, though, is truly a matter of life and death. In honor of American Heart Month, let's learn a little bit more about the blood that our hearts pump through our bodies. Blood is composed of cells and plasma.
“Lymphoid tissue, cells and organs that make up the lymphatic system, such as white blood cells, bone marrow, and the thymus spleen, and lymph nodes” (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). Lymphoid tissue is a big part of Hodgkin disease, so to fully understand the disease an individual must learn that the lymphoid tissue is very important for the human body. Lymphoid tissue is extremely important as an immune response and it also helps protect the body from infection and invaders. Simply, Hodgkin disease is the expansion of lymphoid tissue and the existence of Reed-Sternberg cells that are found in the lymph nodes. Reed-Sternberg cells “are large, often multinucleated with a peculiar morphology and an unusual immunophenotype, that does
Homeostasis is the body's method of keeping internal stability no matter what external influence disturbs its normal functioning (Anna, 2011). And the respiratory system is one of the systems in the body that helps to maintain homeostasis by maintaining pH and regulating gas exchange. The main function of this system is take in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. This system has external respiration and internal respiration. External respiration is a mechanical process that exchange of gases in and out of the body, while internal respiration is the chemical process that breaking down nutrients with oxygen to produce energy.
Unit 5 Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Social Care P4 Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body The two body systems selected in relation to energy metabolism in the body are the digestive system and cardiovascular system. The digestive system breaks down foods and the cardiovascular system enables absorption and usage of the food. The term energy metabolism in the body relates to chemical reactions that that maintain cells and organisms. It is divided into two categories: catabolism is the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy and anabolism the synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells.
Skin is the largest organ of the human body. Skin is part of the integumentary system, the physiological functions include protection with chemical, physical and biological barriers, aids in homeostasis regulation, sense receptors, maintenance, blood storage, as well as excretion by means of sweat. The anatomical structure of the skin can be divided into two main parts, the epidermis and dermis. The third part of the epidermis is the hypodermis, it is also known as the superficial fascia, where it is mainly comprised of adipose tissue and is therefore not examined as part of the skin. In the epidermis of the skin, there are specialized cells located in several distinct layers.
Within the immune system, there are four important parts within the blood: platelets (form blood clots), red blood cells (transfer oxygen), white blood cells (fight infection), and plasma (surrounds blood). Starting with white blood cells—there are two different types: phagocytes and lymphocytes. Within phagocytes, there are also dendritic cells and macrophages. Lymphocytes are located within the lymph nodes and include both T Cells (which mature in the thymus) and B Cells. Both of these cells come from bone marrow.
The heart may have the sinoatrial node (SA node) to trigger contraction, but in order for us to breath our nervous system has to signal for us to begin the process of ventilation (breathing). Our brain stem has three parts to it, but only the pons and medulla oblongata play a key role in breathing. The medulla helps set the respiratory rhythm by receiving and sending impulses to a bundle of neurons called the ventral respiratory group to the phrenic nerve to bring about contraction in the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. All this only happens though due to the sensors of the chemoreceptors. The chemoreceptors located in the medulla and carotid and aortic bodies detect a rise in carbon dioxide (CO2).
IMMUNE SYSTEM All living organisms are continuously exposed to substances that are capable of causing them harm. Most organisms protect themselves against such substances in more than one way --- with physical barriers, for example, or with chemicals that repel or kill invaders. Animals with backbones, called vertebrates, have these types of general protective mechanisms, but they also have a more advanced protective system called the immune system. The immune system is a complex network of organs containing cells that recognize foreign substances in the body and destroy them. It protects vertebrates against pathogens, or infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites.
The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the body with the next exhalation." (Dugdale, 2012) Ventilation is another fact because if this not happen our body will be full of carbon dioxide and the oxygen will be down. Many times when the people here ventilation they get confused and think that they are talking about respiration that is not correct, is correct say that ventilation is similar to breathing but no to respiration, they are different "Movements of the ribs, rib muscles and diaphragm allow air into and out of the lungs.
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
Due this process, it allows the lymphatic system to monitor the invading microbes. The lymphatic vessels also carry a clear fluid that it bathes in the body’s tissues that is known as lymph. Another organ is lymph node that is has specialized compartments where the immune system there and can encounter antigens. It shaped is small and bean shapes that are there in neck, armpits, abdomen and groin. As mentioned above, that there is lymphatic vessels, so that the immune cells and all the foreign particles will enter then exit through outgoing lymphatic vessels.