To what extent was Wilhelm’s foreign policy the cause of WWI? Kaiser Wilhelms foreign policy wasn’t the exact cause of World War I, but it was one of the main causes that brought it to start. In 1888, Wilhelm II became the Kaiser of the german empire.
Otto von Bismarck used political wit and risk-taking to facilitate efforts towards German unification. Through Realpolitik, “...the pursuit of a Nation’s self-interest based on a realistic assessment of costs and consequences of action.” A political theory in which realistic, practical strategies are utilized over strategies of ideological or moral consideration. Because Realpolitik in a doctrine that acts in the self-interest of the state, it is qusai-nationalistic. Through Realpolitik, Bismarck gained significant leverage over Austria in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and considerable leverage over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71.
By 1871, Otto Von Bismarck had accomplished total German Unification, which included the Southern German States. In my essay, I will analyse how Bismarck used combined politics in order to preserve his power over Germany, the role of the wars against France, Austria and Denmark and how it influenced German politics. I will also discuss how historians have describes his politics as Bonapartist and the previous actions already in place when he was appointed Minister President of Prussia. Throughout his political career, Bismarck used combines politics as a method of maintaining power in an ever politically shifting country.
When it comes to Napoleon there are two views you can have. He was a hero, a champion of the revolutionary ideals who almost united Europe under one flag. He was a demon, a villain who betrayed the revolution that he came into power through, and he dealt more damage to it than all of the ancien regime combined. Some major figures in European history have had the former opinion, Charles De Gaulle, while others have had the latter opinion, Ludwig van Beethoven. Personally, when I think about what happened before, during, and after the revolution, as well as the basic causes and the core of the revolution, I have to agree with the later opinion despite my deep and heartfelt admiration for both Napoleon and his accomplishments.
Appeasement is the policy of making compromise to the dictatorial power in order to avoid conflict .Appeasement was a policy adopted by Britain during the 1930s. This policy developed from the growing belief that some countries, especially Germany, had been unfairly treated in the peace settlement of 1918-1919.. So in this essay I will explain and justify whether appeasement was the right policy or not .When Hitler started ruling Germany , he tried to stop the treaty of versailles as it consisted of aggressive and harsh terms that the Allied powers had put in for Germany , in order to avoid conflict. It reflected a sense, present in France as well as Britain, that the Versailles Treaty (1919) had either been too harsh initially or had become unenforceable
This was most important because different countries would not be involved if they weren’t allies. Before the war happened, Russia, France and Britain had formed an alliance- the Triple Entente. All three countries think that Germany would be a threat to them. Russia thinks that Germany’s army base is too big; UK thinks that Germany’s wealth and navy increased to threaten UK; The relationship between Germany and France had been sour as Germany stole a land from France, and had been in a long-standing feud with Germany from then. Then, Austria-Hungary and Germany formed an alliance with Belgium and the Ottoman Empire joining in.
Only after the election of Hugh Capet and beginning of Capetian dynasty (987-1328) did France unite as a realm with a distinct territory. Hugh Capet recognized Paris as his power center, practically establishing the capitol, but the rest of the kingdom was controlled by powerful local lords. Under the Capetian dynasty, many of the basic administrative institutions of the French monarchy began to develop, while being the biggest contributor to the crusades, kings slowly solidified their power and influence over the kingdom. Philip II, for the first time, uses the title King of France, instead of King of the Franks, while his successor Louis IX enhanced the prestige of monarchy even further. Capetian Kings by extending and maintaining power,
The British promoted nationalism as patriotic. British imperialism was seen as an export of Britishness to the colonies while, for other European nations, it was self affirmation and a way to compensate their weakness and failures. But, for the British, its civilization was superior to all other nations. France In France nationalism was a motivating force in comparison to Britain after being defeated in the 1870-71 war against Prussia.
Germany, unfortunately was already demonstrating impressive military might in Spain. Initially Germany had rejected the leaders of the military uprising request to help the military uprising during the Spanish civil war in the 1930’s but eventually Hitler relented and gave Germany’s support. This battles gave the dictator an excuse to test-run his army and leave a bold impression on the world. In addition, Hitler’s interference brought Germany closer to Italy, who was also supporting the military uprising,, ultimately befriending the Italians and gain a potential ally for his struggle against the British and the French. This friendship didn’t go unnoticed in the eyes of the allies and weariness began to
Alexander Hamilton was a man who strongly believed in a powerful central government. This means he wanted the government to rule and have all the say. Thomas Jefferson was a man who strongly believed in the union of the states with government as a humble leader. The two opposing views caused two political parties to be born, The Federalists, and The Democratic-Republican Party. The Federalists would eventually cease in 1828 and The Democratic-Republican Party would spilt and become the two political parties of today.
Joseph II was the emperor of Austria from 1765-1790. He lived from 1741-1790, and was the son of Maria Theresa. Later, Joseph ran a co-regency with Maria Theresa after his father had died. The co-regency was mostly run by Maria, but Joseph ran foreign matters and the military. Joseph agreed with Maria’s ideas about education, but they argued constantly other other things such as religious toleration.
With Russia being so large his reforms were very slowly implemented with many Russian citizens not getting the message right away. The youth of Russia enthusiastically accepted his new western influenced reforms in name of Peter the great and were excited about the changes, but the older traditionalists that were quite common in Russia did not. Many of these traditionalists were older upperclassmen who cared more for religion and tradition that the words of Peter the great. To them Peter was trying to change all of Russia’s traditions and beliefs and they felt threatened by it. Many Russian men held great pride in their beards and to many it was a religious symbol as well; this is just one example of a reform that many Russian traditionalists opposed.
In the beginning of this Community, Robert Schuman, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1950, stated, “Such a transformation will be born out of all this, a Europe that is firmly united and solidly built.” (Doc 5) Schuman is supportive of a French and German economic alliance, believing that establishing common markets with Germany wouldopen new opportunities for French growth following World War
Meanwhile the War of Roses from 1451-1477 proved the Tudor dynasty victorious and ruled until 1603 within England. Although the new monarch , Henry VII, began to slow nobility power through the star chamber, which often contained torture. His procedures did not stop the development of the standard government laws and taxation. After Henry VII, Henry VIII took power in 1509 until 1547 and broke away from the Catholic church in 1534, which was major for a king to do. He then created another church and had the king have authority over it, and became the most powerful king of this