4) The spread of diseases like small pox via the interaction between Europeans and Amerindians was essential in European conquest of the western hemisphere because it led to changed social, economic, and political relations in Europe and also created diversity and new cultures.
I myself, like many others, have never heard of the Cahokia Mounds, or the civilization that created them. After reading about the people and their way of life I was quite amazed. How interesting to think that the Cahokia leader, the Great Sun, would howl at the sun every morning on top of a 15-acre ceremonial mound. I was most surprised that such a civilized and developed group of group could be completely wiped out.
“Plague in Central America,” by Arana Xajila, in the years of 1519-1560 talks about a deadly plague that derives from Europe to Mesoamerica (Central America) and spreads throughout Central America. This plague had spread to the people of Central America when their tribe, Cakchiquels, were fighting against the Spaniards. The Spaniards that were fighting in the tribe had passed on this deadly plague to the Cakchiquels tribe who then passed it on to others in Central America. This plague can be known as the influenza (flu). This deadly virus was spreading rapidly and soon everyone in Central America were affected. This deadly disease that spread from Europe to Central America had caused people much suffering and ultimately was the cause of their
“Then there was great destruction of American Indians by war, disease, and killing work, and the importation of [African Slaves] into Spanish America was begun in order to fill the void in the labor market,” (Columbus, Document 5). This quote explains that Native Americans were dying from diseases, wars, and killing work that Europeans had to start buying slaves from Africa just to do the work of the dead Native Americans. Moreover, Native Americans did get sick, but the diseases weren’t as bad as the ones in Europe. A drastic population decrease happened from diseases which resulted in a small amount of Native Americans left. For one reason, it was common for rodents to get on ships and getting to the new land, and rodents can carry diseases. Another reason is that Native Americans weren’t immune to these diseases and when the diseases came to the New World, their immune system and body's weren’t ready for it. Furthermore, Columbus wrote that wars had also started between them, these wars happened from land and other reasons. After Native Americans started to die, Europeans brought African slaves to replace the Native
Diseases only found in the European world, such as smallpox, spread to the Americas due to people migrating with these diseases. Since natives did not have diseases like these, they were easily killed off by them. These diseases ended up killing 90 percent of the population native to America. The large number of deaths allowed the conquistadors to greatly outnumber indigenous people and easily capture the now weak tribes. Some may point out that the American diseases must have also affected the Europeans. However, due to the fact that many Europeans and their ancestors had worked with animals and in dirty places, many had already built up strong immunities to new diseases. This resulted in insignificant deaths of Europeans. Therefore, one of the major reasons for the victory of the Europeans over Americans was the biological weapon of diseases.
Among the many things spread and shared in the Columbian Exchange, the trading of diseases is perhaps the most significant. The natives of the Americas had never experienced the serious diseases that European explorers carried over to the New World. From smallpox to influenza and malaria to cholera, Native American populations were drastically decreased due to their poor immunity. Between the numerous amounts of European diseases, though, measles was the most remarkable in that its effects were both widespread and enduring.
While the Americas suffered a great loss due to disease transferred by the Europeans, Europe was introduced to Syphilis (S.T.D.). I find this a tad ironic due to the fact that Europeans infected the Native Americans, then the Native Americans then affected the Europeans through the women they stole. “The Pox” as Europeans called syphilis, spread through Europe slowly then about as fast as the diseases in the New World did. When sores would occur on the genital area mercury and guaiacum were used as a remedy. This S.T.D. soon calmed down and became part of our
Firstly, European empires in the Americas as well as Russian, Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman empires are different in their development because Europe interacted and depended on other regions. The Atlantic Ocean connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Strayer states how “these two ‘old worlds’ were joined, increasingly creating a single biological regime, a ‘new world’ of global dimensions.” The reason for this difference is that Europe constructed their empires across the Atlantic Ocean in the Americas, or the New World, unlike their Russian, Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman counterparts. This resulted in an advantage for the Europeans because they had access to new resources and ideas. This was accomplished through the Columbian Exchange, which is the network of migration and trade within the Atlantic Ocean. Next, European empires in the Americas as well as Russian, Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman empires are different in their development because Europe had a greater impact on the native peoples that they integrated into their growing empires. When the Europeans arrived in the Americas, they brought a very tiny weapon with them. They brought disease. Small pox, measles, and malaria and just a few of the old world diseases that devastated native populations. In fact, “Native Americans died in appalling numbers, in many cases up to 90 percent of the population.” The diseases were at its worst in the Aztec and Inca Empires since the people lived close together. However, in the old world, disease related deaths were not nearly as prevalent as in the Americas. The reason for this difference is that the Native Americans had no domesticated animals (except llamas), which resulted in no acquired immunities to old world diseases.
Diseases such as diphtheria, the bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, and scarlet fever were scattered throughout the New World as the Europeans settled inland. The Native Americans who had little to no resistance against these diseases succumbed. It is estimated around 90% of Native Americans population perished due to the diseases listed above. However the explorers weren’t the sole transmitters these diseases. Critters and livestock like mosquitoes, black rats and chickens that migrated along with the Europeans also carried the bacteria. The contagions held by these creatures consisted of: measles, chicken pox, malaria and yellow fever. Some American diseases that were transferred back to the old world include Chagas disease and supposedly, Syphilis. Although they did have some impact on European populous the effects were seemingly insignificant compared to the impact of the European diseases on the Native
On October 12, 1492, an Italian merchant by the name of Christopher Columbus landed on an island in the New World. With him he brought three ships and a small crew of Spaniards. After exploring other islands, Columbus came one that he called Hispaniola; here, they found seemingly primitive and naϊve natives that they immediately began to take advantage of. However, little did they know that this first meeting would bring exploration of South and Central America that would wreak havok among the Natives. Throughout the period of European Expansion, Natives were ripped from their home and forced to work day in and day out. Almost every single person from the New World, whether a slave or not, was seriously impacted by the spread of diseases.Furthermore,
In the Age of Exploration, the Columbian Exchange was created between Europe and the Americas as a massive exchange of plants, animals, and diseases. In document 2, the Columbian Exchange is depicted, and a main part of it shows how many diseases– smallpox, measles, and typhus– were brought by Europe to the Americas. In The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Miguel Léon-Portilla claims that diseases struck "everywhere in the city and kill[ed] a vast number of... people" (Document 7). The illnesses caused many sores to appear on peoples' faces and bodies. Some people could not walk or move as they were helpless and cried in agony. Many people died from not only diseases, but also from hunger because they "could not get to search for food" and "everyone else was too sick to care of them, so they starved to death in their own beds" (Document 7). Document 2 shows that the effects of the diseases caused a large decline of population for the Native Americans– estimating a decrease of roughly 25 million people to 1.5 million people within about 85 years. Through the exchange of goods, the Americans imported a lot more than they intended. In effect of that, they killed many people and destroyed many civilizations. To make matters worse, they did not have any intentions of helping or caring for the people who they
During the mid-fourteenth century, a plague hit Europe. Initially spreading through rats and subsequently fleas, it killed at least one-third of the population of Europe and continued intermittently until the 18th century. There was no known cure at the time, and the bacteria spread very quickly and would kill an infected person within two days, which led to structural public policies, religious, and medical changes in Europe. The plague had an enormous social effect, killing much of the population and encouraging new health reforms, it also had religious effects by attracting the attention of the Catholic Church, and lastly, it affected the trade around Europe, limiting the transportation of goods. As a response to the plague that took place
With them came smallpox, measles, chicken pox, influenza, and many other diseases. “Before the arrival of Columbus, Native American disease wasn’t dominant in the land. Due to the lack of exposure of disease in their younger years, Native Americans were vulnerable to the European diseases that would come with the Columbian Exchange. The diseases would soon destroy many societies of the ancient Aztec, Maya, and Inca. Through many estimates it is foreseen that alien diseases caused over 50% deaths of the Native American population. On the other hand, Europeans didn’t have the same effect when they came in contact with these diseases. Exposed to the diseases at an early age, Europeans were mostly to fully immune. With the devastating effects of disease, native culture was starting to change. Persuaded that their native gods have abandoned them, many natives converted to Christianity. Forced by disease, natives usually married relatives that survived the diseases since appropriate partners were scarce. Furthermore, disease also influenced the African Slave Trade to the Americas. With Africans being immune to Old World diseases other than the Native Americans, many Europeans preferred the African as the better slave.”(The Great Disease Migration)
The Columbian Exchange occurred when Columbus arrived in the new world and disease, culture, crops, and animals were traded. This swap caused the great biological exchange. When the Spanish and later English came over to the new world along with crops and animals they also brought disease. Europeans, living among many diseases, had built immunity to the ailment, but since the natives had never been exposed to the illnesses they had no immunity and the disease quickly spread. The Europeans, unintentionally, started an epidemic that would spread throughout the Americas and single handedly kill millions of Natives. Europeans brought diseases such as cholera, malaria, measles, mumps, smallpox, typhoid, and yellow fever to name a few. The only known disease that the Natives probably had was syphilis. Although the Europeans inadvertently shared their diseases they did share other
The primary source I chose for my analysis is “A Most Terrible Plague: Giovanni Boccaccio”. This document focuses on the account of how individuals acted when a plague broke out and hundreds of people were dying every day. This source is written by Giovanni Boccaccio as it is a story told by him and friends as they passed the time. Boccaccio discusses how “the plague had broken out some years before in the Levant, and after passing from place to place, and making incredible havoc along the way, had now reached the west.” Readers of this source can assume there wasn’t much cures and medicinal technology weren’t used much during this time as even their physicians stayed away from the sick because once they got close they would also get sick. The purpose of Boccaccio preparing the document