Ap Biology Chapter 2 Study Guide

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Hana Phan
Mrs Thomas
Honors Chemistry P. 2

Chapter 2 Booknotes

2.1 What is matter? matter - anything that has mass or volume volume - the amount of space an object occupies mass - a measure of how difficult it is to change the object’s state of motion atoms - the basic unit of matter molecules - a neutral group of atoms held together by chemical bonds physical properties - properties that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter state - the condition of being a gas, liquid, solid, plasma, or neutron star chemical properties - properties that can be observed only when substances interact with one another

Matter is anything that has mass or volume. Volume is the amount of space an object occupies while …show more content…

Kinetic energy is moving energy and can be found through the equation KE=(½)mv². Energy is measured in the units of Joules or j. Potential energy is another form of energy that is energy that has the ability or potential to make matter move once it is released. Energy cannot be destroyed or created, rather is is transformed into other types of energy (for example kinetic to electrical). Mass is also another type of energy (mass energy) and it is just the mass of an object or the energy of being. Chemical changes cause atoms to be altered or changed while physical changes do not affect the chemical state of an object. Endothermic reactions absorb energy while exothermic reactions release it.

2.3 How is matter classified? pure substance - matter composed of only one kind of atom or molecule mixture - a collection or two of more pure substances physically mixed together homogeneous mixture - a mixture containing substances that are uniformly distributed heterogeneous mixture - a mixture containing substances that are not evenly distributed phase - any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties elements - the 109 simplest substances from which more complex materials are …show more content…

Filtering, evaporating, centrifuging, and decanting something will only physically change it. Chromatography is used to separate different parts of a solution so that it can be identified. It can work because different substances have different attractions to things. Distillation can separate substances, such as salt water, as long as it has different boiling points. It can even be used to purify salt water but it is not cost efficient or energy efficient so it is not suitable for everyday use. Density is the calculation or equation of mass divided by volume and it can be used to identify different substances. Density is always the same in one object or substance because density is a constant ratio. Objects have “lighter” densities will float while objects that are “denser” will

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