In "Learning to Be Gendered", Penelope Eckert and Sally McConnell-Ginet argues that the gender identification does not begin at birth. The dichotomy between a male and a female in biology is what sets them apart. The authors address the false assumptions with gender identification for people who think they figured out the pattern for boys and girls. The article gives examples of instances where parents and adults have unconsciously made judgments for males and females based on their expectations and roles. As a result, boys have learned to perform as a male and girls have learned to perform as a female.
Unlike ‘sex’, which typically refers to the biological and physiological differences, gender is a sociological concept that describes the social and cultural constructions that is associated with one’s sex (Giddens & Sutton, 2013, p. 623-667). The constructed (or invented) characteristics that defines gender is an ongoing process that varies between societies and culture and it can change over time. For example, features that are overly masculine in one culture can be seen as feminine in another; however, the relation between the two should not be seen as static. Gender socialization is thought to be a major explanation for gender differences, where children adhere to traditional gender roles from different agencies of socialization. Gender
In this study they tested the idea of ‘nature or nurture’ when it comes to gender identity. The researcher that began this experiment was psychologist John Money. Money told David Reimer's parents to raise him as a girl. David became Brenda, had a constructed vagina and took hormone pills his whole childhood. When it was time for Brenda to check in with Money, Brenda's twin brother would come to the visits as well.
And they start to prepare its arrival depending on which sex the baby is. The article questions the audience, “Does knowing all this makes a difference on how the parents treat the child?” Scientists are concerned about when and how do the children start to act according to their gender. The late 1960’s to 1970’s had been a turning point for the gender identification. For example, during this time period, women got the right to go out and work.
Some folks assume that girls and boys behave and like different things based on their distinctive innate nature and physical differences. While it might be true that they identify themselves based on biological traits like their gender/sex, Penelope Eckert, the author of Learning to be Gendered, argued that receiving different treatments and nurture can have influence on how girls and boys learn to identify themselves. Penelope suggest that there’s a social matter where an individual’s gender can be a heavy label on how he or she would be like, but part of the gender label is developed by parenting while growing up. Even at birth, gender roles are conditioned by their milieu. Baby girls are given flowery or pink gifts while boys are
A child's earliest exposure to what it means to be male or female comes from parents. From the time children are babies, parents treat their sons and daughters differently. Parents’ dress their children gender specific colors, give them gender differentiated toys, and expect different behaviors from boys and girls. Parents inspire their children to participate in sex-typed activities. Such activities include doll playing and engaging in housekeeping activities for girls, and playing with trucks and engaging in sports activities for boys.
When the boys change to stereotypes they are more likely to be more prone to substance abuse and suicide, having shorter life expectancy, and also engaging in more physical violence than girls. Zoe Greenberg, a journalist at The New York Times talks about gender in her article ¨When a student says, I'm Not a Boy or a Girl¨. In her article, Greenberg talks about the story of Sofia Martin and uses Pathos by using the story of Sofia Martin to play on the emotions of the audience to explain the situation that has occurred with the her, how ¨at the age of 15, after rehearsing in the shower, Martin made an announcement to the students at Puget Sound Community School where she explained to her school how Martin believes that she in not a male or
According to the “Gender and Group Process: A Developmental Perspective” by Maccoby who illustrates that sex typing, socialization pressure, and same-sex groups that mediate and influences on our gender development as we grow up. Sex typing obtains sex distinctive characteristics such as various of behaviors, interests, personality traits, and cognitive biases in which to identify the person is becoming more/less masculine/feminine. Also, socialization pressures from parents tend to shape the child gender identity toward their biological sex by giving the toys and activity preferences, acknowledge the gender stereotypes, and their personality traits. Social psychologists claim that same-sex groups and group size are matters which can describe
Although some people believe that nature affects the gender identity, others argue that, based on the education an individual receives, it is actually nurture. For example, John Moore, a teacher at a female-only school, says, “My findings suggest that, in some senses, the single-sex school is strongly feminist” (Moore, 2005). On the other hand, many societies teach the children gender stereotypes to try and limit them from becoming against what the society feels is appropriate. Gender roles or stereotypes are “a set of qualities, behaviors, and attitudes that are considered appropriate for males and females based on their biological sex” (Whalen & Maurer-Starks, 2008). Most of the time, these stereotypes are taught and explained to the children in the early stages of learning, since as mentioned above, gender identity is most likely detected after the child is two years old.
And the same goes for masculinity. One can choose to be more feminine or masculine simply through carrying yourself in a certain way or adopting specific traits and characteristics of the chosen and desired quality. Some people are more masculine than others, regardless of whether they are male or female,
In 2011, Peggy Orenstein published Cinderella Ate My Daughter to examine how princess culture impacted girlhood. “What Makes Girls Girls?” is a chapter in this book that delves into the implications of sexual difference and whether or not it is rooted in biology. By studying various research projects conducted by professionals, Orenstein discovers that, ultimately, a child’s environment plays a key role in behavior. To pose the question of whether the concept of gender is inherent, Orenstein references several examples that have sparked a considerable amount of discussion about how a child’s gender expression is molded by upbringing.
Social construction is where peoples understanding of reality is almost entirely socially placed. Going along with that definition, It’s hard to say that gender is a social construction. Most people believe that gender is based on the parts that one has, when in reality it’s how someone feels inside.
There are grey and in-between areas. Sex characteristics do not always define a person’s gender identity. Many people are nonbinary and that’s perfectly okay, just as many people are cisgender and that is fine as well. The best thing about this paper is that it explains that, and that many cultures accept this
Ana Lilia Quiroz Sociology 133: Sociology of Gender Spring 2018 Midterm Essay One From the moment an individual is born, they are assigned to one of two sex categories based on the sexual organs they display. From then on, they are expected to behave a certain way: boys are taught to act tough and emotionless, and girls are taught to be sensitive and gentle. If they do not “do gender” correctly, then you are seen as an outcast by society. However, gender is not the only type of oppression people face on a daily basis.
Have you ever realized how society put us in categories, on how we should act according to our gender? Or have you ever watched commercials that actually try to break free from the gender stereotypes? If not then you should pay attention. Gender is something that strongly influences the world around us, whether it influences our behavior or how people treat us, it is still something with great power. Investigating how we are socialized in regards to gender is interesting because it is such a broad topic on how society characterizes everyone by gender.