This assignment includes; Strengths, examples and weaknesses of the following psychological research; Bandura et al, Skinner & Loftus and Palmer.In order discuss and come to a conclusion as to why ecological validity is important in psychological research. It is important to note that; Ecological validity is the degree to which behaviours reflect the behaviours of everyday life. In Chapter 3 Bandura et al demonstrated whether children were witnesses to an aggressive display of play. The strengths were that many variables were controlled: such as;“the gender of the model, the time the children observed the model and the behaviour of the model.”(Oates 2012 P.118) This suggests that the model had an effect on the child’s actions because all variables other than the independent variable are controlled.Due to variables being controlled this study is reliable,as this allows for the study to be replicated. However, there are also limitations,Bandura et al’s study involved a child with an adult model, which is very limited in a social situation and there is no interaction between the child and the model at any point other than when aggression is being displayed;Bandura used a laboratory setting which was set up as a play room. This is artificial so it is not ecologically valid as this …show more content…
Skinners experiment was standardised and controlled it made the study more reliable because there were no influences from other factors like extraneous variables/confounding variables.This shows that researchers could have compromised ecological validity for other factors that are just as important in psychological
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Kashfa Ahmed ENGW3308 Musselman Unit 1 Draft 1 APA Format 09/10/2014 Word Count: 1291 Defining psychology has been a dilemma ever since the emergence of this field in the scientific society. Research in psychology follows the scientific method except the manipulation of abstract variables does not always lead to concrete results. There are many things to consider like the variability amongst subjects, internal validity and the inability to generalize results to different populations along with the specific guidelines that must be followed in order to deem the experiment as ethical. Since psychology
Please answer all of the following questions regarding the Wechsler et al. (1994) study of binge drinking: Describe the design of the study, including the researchers’ target population and sampling design, including the sampling frame(s). The target population of the study was composed of all full-time undergraduate students enrolled in 4-year colleges and universities accredited by one of the six regional accrediting bodies covering the United States. The overall sampling design was a two-stage cluster sample.
Mr. Shanabrook AP Psychology 16 August 2017 HW #1: Unit 1 Homework- Who’s Who John Locke • Philosopher from England (Late 1600’s) • Created Tabula Rasa- the theory that you are born as a “blank slate” and that your (early) experiences create who you are as a person • Believes in Nature on the Nature vs. Nurture debate • Rewards and Punishments Enthusiast • Social Contract Theory- an unwritten agreement between a person and a group (such as a person accepts safety from their country) John B. Watson • American Phycologist (Late 1800s to mid 1900’s) • Endorsed Behaviorism- environment creates behavior of person • Claimed that Psychology is the science of just human behavior • His beliefs were influenced by his father’s abandonment of him as
This essay will discuss the role of ecological validity in psychological research, drawing on material from the DE100 textbook ‘Investigating Psychology’. It will begin by giving a description of what ecological validity is, and consider it in relation to different examples of research. The research used to discuss the role of ecological validity will be based around social learning and aggression, behaviourism, and memory. Firstly the study of Bandura et al. will be considered, his experiments on children copying violent behaviours using the Bobo doll experiment.
The subject of this essay concerns the Conformity Experiment, also known as the Obedience to Authority Experiment, conducted by Stanley Milgram in 1961. He started studying this phenomenon in order to understand the behaviour of individuals subject to authority, after Adolf Eichmann, one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, declared during the trial held in Jerusalem, that he was just carrying out Hitler 's orders. For what reason do humans, in specific circumstances, delegate their own autonomy to authority? Are people able to execute orders, that are conflicting with their own morality and virtue, when those orders are given by an authoritarian figure?
Ivan Pavlov was a russian scientist interested in studying how digestion works in mammals. Pavlov recorded and watched the dogs digestive process and how it works. While he conducted his studies watched and studied on how and why dogs create saliva, in other words “drool”. The mammals he observed, he recorded the information about dogs and their digestive process. While he was conducting studies to find what triggers dogs to salivate.
These findings have impacted the psychological field in a manner of ways. One finding was that four of the children later talked about how they felt uncomfortable in the dark room (Bain et al, 1958). This will have had an impact on the psychological field as it clearly displays the lasting effects of a stressful situation on young children. Thus, studies of this sort will have had an impact upon on the guidelines which the British Psychological Society (BPS) produce for all psychological studies to follow. The ethical guidelines now state that the monitoring of the willingness of the child should be applied to every study (British Psychological Society, 2014).
Given the broad areas of interest falling under the purview of biological psychology, it will probably come as no surprise that individuals from all sorts of backgrounds are involved in this research, including biologists, medical professionals, physiologists, and chemists. Indeed, Tolman stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.” Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today. Given that any behavior is, at its roots, biological, some areas of psychology take on aspects of a natural science like biology. Reflecting the diversity of the field of psychology itself, members, affiliate members, and associate members span the spectrum from students to doctoral-level psychologists, and come from a variety of places including educational settings, criminal justice, hospitals, the armed forces, and industry.
What is the Marshmallow Experiment and what does it explain? The marshmallow experiment is a simple procedure. The researcher brought the child to the room and told them about the experiment. The researcher would leave the room for about 15 minutes, but he wouldn’t tell the child.
Next, response feedback influences will also impact the occurrence of such behavior in the future. Lastly, it stressed that cognitive functions are important as well. To prove that same behaviors will be learned by individuals following the action of the models and altering their own behaviors, Albert Bandura conducted a famous experiment, known as the Bobo doll experiment in 1961 (McLeod, 2014). Before the experiment, Albert Bandura made 4 predictions. First, children that observed adult acting aggressively will be more likely to act the same.
Through The Psychologist Eye In Lauren Slater’s book, “Opening Skinner’s Box,” we discover in the first three chapters the mysteries behind a few psychological experiments and the discoveries that three profound psychologists have made. Each chapter is about a different psychologist, the first is B.F. Skinner; a behaviorist who designed a process of learning in which behavior is controlled, he called this operant conditioning. Lauren Slater wanted people to know about his experiment, she read his books, talked to friends and family members to unearth the features behind this man. She found that he was a loving father, who could train animals to do unordinary things, like play the piano for an example, through the processes of operant conditioning,
Then there is the theory of Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner and what the public’s view on this theory is and how well it works. Behavior Modification
Psy20150 Essay. Name: Clodagh Finnerty Student Number: 13362386 ‘It has been argued that two events led to the development of the modern discipline of Psychology: the foundation of Wilhelm Wundt’s Institute of Experimental Psychology, and the introduction of a new theory of evolution, described in Darwin’s Origin of Species. Critically assess the impact of these events on Psychology and society.’
The evidence is proved by the two studies: Bobo doll experiment by Bandura and the natural experiment conducted by Charleton. It is very practical in its ability to be applied in real life situations. The social cognitive theory can be applied to explain many things such as aggressive behaviors and how behaviors can differ in different cultures. Concerning the construct validity, this is hard to observe and measure because we cannot be certain what actually causes aggressive behaviors. The theory is unbiased, however, looking at the studies, they are both done on children.
" Behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning." The behaviour we observed is models. In social life, children encompassed with effective people like parents, siblings, friends, tv characters and teachers etc. They attract to certain people and encode the behaviour and later imitate the behaviour interest to them regardless whether it is appropriate or inappropriate for them.