Behavior Modification Learning Process

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"The Learning process is built on experience that results in a comparatively permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential." (Gerrig, 2002). All living beings, animals and humans, learn. Learning is a continuous process, it begins at birth and ends at death. There are many different learning theories and many different theorists with beliefs on how we learn. Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours.
Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008)
Behaviourism
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Behaviour Modification Learning
Learning is defined as the process which leads to comparatively permanent behavioural change or potential behavioural change. While learning takes place, we change our perception of our environment, the way we understand the external stimuli, and our behaviour.
John B. Watson was the first to study the effects of learning towards behaviour, which is known as Behaviourism. The assumed idea with in behaviourism is that only behaviours which can be observed are researched and that moods and thoughts are too subjective for observation. B. F. Skinner a well- known behaviourist, followed Watson’s research but he added that internal stimuli can also influence behaviour. (Heffner, 1992)
The behaviourist modification theory is that learning is only the achievement of new behaviour based on conditions of the environment; the new behaviour is linked to a stimulus by providing reinforcement after the correct behaviour is performed. (Hebb,
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His discovery was made while researching the digestion process in dogs. He experimented by placing meat powder into a dogs mouth, the dogs bodily reaction was measured through tubes which were inserted into various organs. Before the meat powder was given to them the dogs began to salivate. After a time the dogs would began to salivate when the person feeding them come in to the room. His research found that responses to certain stimuli are natural and not learned, but a survival instinct. Pavlov began to add the meat powder while simultaneously ringing a bell. Thereafter the dog would salivate on the bell sound even when no meat powder was presented. The dog was conditioned to respond to the bell. (Weiten, 2015)
Many of our behaviours are molded by the coupling of stimuli. Associations between stimuli and reactions are often made without conscious recognition, classically conditioned. (Heffner, 1992)
Operant Conditioning is a response to our environment. It can be thought of as learning, every action has a reaction. If behaviour causes a negative reaction this is remembered for a possible future time and if behaviour causes a positive reaction, the behaviour will be repeated.
Behaviour modification was established from these theories because they kept the notion that behaviour can be trained and untrained.
Techniques were developed to either assist in producing certain behaviours or stopping

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