Skinner mastered. Some think that using Operant conditioning with positive and negative punishment and negative reinforcement works better than positive reinforcement. The positive reinforcement has consequences and comes with a rewarding outlook. This is a consequence that causes a behavior to increase. It would work out better if the adult explains to the child what was done and how to fix it than to punish with negative reinforcement.
Reinforcement means what the word implies. Reinforcement can make a behaviour stronger conditioning can happen without intending it. This could be called behaviour modification which is someone trying to shape behaviour through reinforcement. For effective learning, the reinforce must immediately follow the response. Punishment which is delayed will be ineffective.
RS 2020 Foundation Psychology for Rehabilitation Professionals Individual Assignment Cheng Oi Ying 15081305D Guest Speaker: Yu Bun According to Group 1’s presentation, they have used theories in the field of educational psychology which are observational learning and operant conditioning theory to explain the life events and experiences of Yu Bun. In this essay, I will use both psychological theories to illustrate Yu Bun’s case and also my own personal experience. But before that, let me first compare and contrast both theories. To start with, here is the analysis of the cultural background of the theorists.
According to another clear definition, resilience is the difference between those who recover well after adversity and those who remain devastated and unable to move ahead (Luthans et al., 2010: 47). The term psychological resilience was first brought into positive organizational behavior (POB) literature by Fred Luthans (2002). He defined resilience as the positive psychological capacity to rebound, to 'bounce back' from adversity, uncertainty, conflict, failure or even positive change, progress and increased responsibility (Luthans, 2002: 702). Masten and Reed (2002) referred to resilience as a class of phenomena characterized by patterns of positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity or risk, and they argued that resilient individual could thrive through positive adaptation to adversities encountered (Siu et al., 2014: 981). Academic research into resilience began in the 1960s by Norman Garmezy, a professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota.
In a situation of "threat", humans reacted by the impulses for our defense. Nevertheless, the investigations focused on the understanding of the negative, leaving aside the positive, so if we evaluate without taking into account that framework centered on the negative, two theories appear: “The Broaden-and-Build Theory” and “The Undoing Hypothesis”. The Broaden-and-Build Theory shows us how positive emotions help develop the individual, preparing him for later times to obtain a series of resources for its defense. One of the cases that Barbara shows us is through words.
Punishment on Trial: Six Basic Principles of Punishment Irvin Arias National University Punishment on Trial: Six Basic Principles of Punishment This paper explores six basic principles of effective punishment in which are most relevant for consideration when using procedures that may function as punishment to change any child's given behavior and if these factors influence whether a given contingency functions as a Punisher. There Must Exist A Behavioral Contingency
‘John Watson was one of the early American psychologists to break the Freudian notions that our unconscious mind was behind most of our behavior’ - Gary Gilles. John Watson was considered the ‘father’ of behaviourism, behaviorism is the scientific study of human behaviour (Schatzie, 2016). Watson was responsible for making Ivan Pavlov’s ideas and principles into part of a psychological norm by applying it to humans. He was impressed with Pavlov’s accurate measurement of observable behaviours and believed that Pavlov’s model could be extended towards diverse forms of learning and personality characteristics. Watson believed that the goal of psychology should be ‘the prediction and control of behavior’, meaning that one should be able to assume an upcoming behavioral action and ultimately learn how
According to him, Social Identity Theory is on the premise that positive social identity is based on advantageous intergroup evaluations, that a positive dependence exists between forte of the group identification and the quantity of positive intergroup diversity. First, he describes the connection that exists in group identification and in-group bias. In this, he maintains that where group identification is founded on a positive in-group assessment and that if individuals are inspired to realize and/or uphold a constructive social identity, and if in-groups are assessed based on their relation to pertinent out-groups, then there should be a relation between an identification and prejudice. Citing various researches, the author asserts that there is a probability that groups can vary from each other widely in their social identity purposes and these identity functions are not properly captured by Social Identity Theory as prescribed.
He believes that the pleasure or pain a person feels is directly related to whether or not the action was right or wrong (Bentham, 39). This means that an action is right when it causes the greatest pleasure for the person or group of people who are involved. If there is a group of people and a certain action would benefit the majority of them for good, then it would be considered to be the right action. On the other hand, if the action does not benefit the majority and only benefits a few, then it would be considered to be wrong. The ultimate goal of this theory is to bring happiness to those involved and to also prevent evil and unhappiness within the group (Bentham, 39).
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is defined as, "the process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior“ (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991). It employs the principles of Operant conditioning, using both positive and negative reinforcement to increase wanted behaviors, as well as positive and negative punishment to decrease unwanted behaviors. Its effectiveness in bringing about worthwhile changes to the behaviors of people with Autism and Developmental Disabilities has been studied extensively, with promising results.
Paul and Alex have followed this model, with Alex as the one with the likely prognosis. The basic premise of the model could lead to a lot of questions. What are psychological influences, or stressors? The major psychological influences are positive and negative reinforcement.
Using positive reinforcement which is giving something a person likes to increase the desired behavior, I can encourage her to continue with this behavior. When I would see her happy for me I would firstly say “Thank you”, and it would make me feel like giving her something such as a sticker, toy, or a big hug! This would make her feel happier, and using this form of operant conditioning will shape her into a better person because she would most definitely want to continue with this behavior not just with me but with others also. I can also encourage Hoda using negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is taking away something you do not like to increase the specific (or desired) behavior, to do this I would feel happy for her whenever she receives something even though she doesn’t like it.
Exploratory language can be applied usefully to