Operant conditioning is a condition in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer to the approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus. “The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that behavior is determined by its consequences. Behavior does not occur as isolated and unrelated events; the consequences that follow the actions of an animal, be they good, bad, or indifferent, will have an effect on the frequency with which those actions are repeated in the future,” (Laule 2). A reinforcement strengthens a response, reinforcement
The case I will be concentrating on is Tomcik vs. Ohio Dep’t of Rehabilitation and Correction in which Tomcik was imprisoned under the custody of Department of Rehabilitation and correction, based on the Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professionals book. The problem stimulated from continuous negligence from nurses and doctors at the department, which initially was when Tomcik received a physical evaluation, included the breast examination by Dr. Evans who stated that the examination was cursory and lasted only a few seconds, which means that not much attention was presented regarding the patient and his job. The next day Tomcik noticed a lump as being about the size of a pea in her right breast, however it was not reported by Dr. Evans.
The theory behind behavior modification ethics has a reputation for its accomplishments and disappointments. In addition to this, there are many dangers in using physical punishment as behavior modification with the two primary modifiers of behavior being Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. The outcome of using negative reinforcement has its share of benefits and downfalls in human behavior whereas; positive reinforcement seems to win over. Then there is the theory of Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner and what the public’s view on this theory is and how well it works.
In the past there have been arguments between agencies and professionals over funding and arguments over who does what, which obstructed closer professional working. A number of strategies have now been developed that focus on improving co-operation for the benefit of those using services.
Operant conditioning is a theory which was developed by an American psychologist named B.F. Skinner. This theory has been known as a learning process. It applies to four different methods, that consists of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment. In this case positive is seen as something being added and negative as something being taken away. The most effective method to utilize for changing a behavior in the future is positive reinforcement.
The health behavior that I chose to change was improving my dental hygiene by brushing my teeth more often. Specifically, brushing and flossing every morning and every night every single day. My plan was to reward myself with Cold Stone at the end of each week that I successfully brushed and flossed morning and night. Before starting my experiment, I researched the benefits of brushing daily and the consequences of not brushing. I found much information that I already knew and some that I did not. I also researched my proposed method of how I planned to change my behavior which was operant conditioning.
Girl, Interrupted is a film that portrays many different illnesses, but specifically the experiences of Susanna, the main character, who is a patient at a psychiatric hospital. The multipath model contains the different dimensions portrayed in the film: biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural. Susanna is diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and some of the dimensions are applied to this disorder in the film. There is really no biological dimension shown in the film with any of the characters. There might be some genetic factors between Susanna and her parents with BPD, but it is not indicated so. In Susanna’s case, the psychological dimension indicates that she, along with others with BPD, experience feelings of
The 1971 film, A Clockwork Orange is a classic piece of work in the world of psychology. The story appropriately represents the concept of classical conditioning and the concept that our environment and upbringing is what shapes a person. This movie accurately presents the negative and positive affects of classical conditioning on a
This is the idea that people's behavior is based off of the consequences and reinforcements one receives. Slater agrees when she says, “Operant conditioning- a cold phrase for a concept that might really mean we are sculptors and sculpted, artist and artwork, responsible for the prompts we fashion.” (29). I making this comment Slater is agreeing that people are always in one of two positions. One is either the controller, giving reinforcements, or the controlled receiving the consequences they are given for their actions. Both people in these rolls are reacting based off the the reinforcements they are given. Their actions are pre-trained by cues they receive in their individual environments. Operant conditioning is another idea that goes against the idea of free
In chapter 7, I found the concept of punishment to be most intriguing. Punishment is a part of operant conditioning which was theorized by B.F. Skinner. Punishment is often confused with negative reinforcement. However, the main difference between the two is: while the goal of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of a behavior, the primary goal of punishment is to reduce the chances of the behavior it follows. In 1938, Skinner concluded that punishment produces only temporary suppression of behavior but later research found that effects may be permanent. In 1966, Azrin and Holz found that there are factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment. Some of the factors include: manner of introduction, immediacy, schedule of punishment,
Chapter three deals with procedures based in the principles of “respondent conditioning”, also known as Classical or Pavlovian conditioning. Classical conditioning is different than “operant conditioning”, in which a behavior is modified through its consequences, known as a reinforcer or punisher. These behaviors are called operant behaviors or voluntary. However, this chapter focuses on “respondent behavior”. An example of a respondent behavior includes going to the doctors and having them use the little hammer on your knee to test your reflexes. The knee jerk that happens automatically and was elicited by the little hammer is the respondent behavior. The little hammer is known as the “Unconditioned stimulus” and the knee jerk reaction is the
Basically, operant conditioning involves reinforcement or punishment as the way of changes in behaviour or pattern permanently. Operant describes as voluntary response of living organism. The individual response is affected by the later consequences. In short, it is just an easy process of learning that tends to response more when the outcome is manipulated. Operant conditioning was found by Polish neurophysiologist Jerzy Konorsky. Then, it was B.F. Skinner who made the concept became popular and well-known throughout the world and even pinned the name of operant conditioning to this concept That is why, he is called the Father of Operant Conditioning and his famous experiment, the Skinner Box. Operant conditioning determinants’ are reinforce, nature response and time interval between response and reinforcement.
Both Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning and Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning can be used every day in an ECCE setting. Today many school systems and childhood authorities follow Skinner’s and Pavlov’s theory by using the approach of positive reinforcement. This encourages good behaviour in the child making the behaviour more likely to be repeated again as they are rewarded and praised for their efforts in reading, writing and general learning. It is important that children’s efforts in a learning setting are rewarded as this will encourage the child to perform to the best of their ability. School authorities only use negative reinforcement as a last resort.
The Ashley case was about a medical procedure done that went over the line of biological ethicality for many. The scenario has a plethora of factors to consider when questioning its ethicality. Even with all of the facts, both options have negative results It was a highly debated decision made by two parents that was sure to set precedent for future medical practices.
Positive and negative reinforcements or rewards and punishments are used to modify or shape learner’s behaviour. B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on operant conditioning. The organism is in the process of "operating" on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. During this "operating," the organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant – that is, the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. This is operant conditioning: "the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms