Since the golden age of microbiology, there has been emphasis on the microorganisms that could be potentially pathogenic to both plants and animals (Cullimore, 2000). This has led to concentration on pathogenic microorganisms rather than environmentally important microbes. The environmental processes were then labelled as a series of natural chemical reactions that were abiotic (Lynch, 1998). The word biotic can be interpreted as an absence of life (i.e sterile), which is untrue about soil (Cullimore, 2000). According to David (1998), soil is defined as the biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust.
Increasing nutrients and sediments due to higher runoff, coupled with lower water levels, will negatively affect water quality (Hamilton et al., 2001). Furthermore, higher water temperatures will enhance the transfer of volatile substance from surface water bodies to the atmosphere (Schindler, 2001). There is no doubt climate change impact is not limited to the water quantity but also correlated in terms of water quality. Regrettably, there are no studies analyzing the impact of climate change on biological water quality from the developing countries, where low-quality water is used for irrigation (WHO/UNICEF, 2000). Nepal one of the least developing with high climate change impact and there is hardly any study carried out about the water quality and climate change.
Plants are the organisms that carry out this chemical reaction and so it is crucial to understand what impacts this process in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. This experiment considers the photosynthesis of aquatic plants and how various concentrations of CO2 effect this process. This was done by measuring the oxygen produced by Elodea Densa submerged in various concentrations of
2.2 Oil Palm Facts and Use Palm oil that deserves attention due to its high concentrations of saturated fat and phenomenal nutrient profile: Palm oil is extracted from two types of oil palm fruit: Elaeis guineensis, which is common in African regions, and Elaeis oleifera, which is found in South America. Historical accounts suggest that palm oil was a part of the diet of indigenous populations. At present, it has become the second most traded oil crop in the world, after soya, with Malaysia and Indonesia as its main producers. Palm oil is not to be confused with palm kernel oil. Both are obtained from the fruit, but the latter is derived from the seeds of the oil palm.
(2003) explore natural and anthropogenic influences on the climate system, with an emphasis on the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of historical land cover change. The biogeophysical effect of land cover change was first subjected to a detailed sensitivity analysis in the context of the UVic Earth System Climate Model. Results showed a global cooling in the range of –0.06 to –0.22 °C, though this effect was not found to be detectable in observed temperature trends. They then include the effects of natural forcings (volcanic aerosols, solar insolation variability and orbital changes) and other anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols). Transient model runs from the year 1700 to 2000 were presented for each forcing individually as well as for combinations of forcings.
They are continuously exposed to more and more obstinate xenobiotic (strange, foreign agent/chemical) compounds into the environment. The index of xenobiotic compounds released in the environment are increasing as the industrialization is gaining strength exponentially. It is very essential to combat this pollution for the substance of better future. Like other living organisms, microbes have a high quality of adaptability. Naturally living in such highly polluted environment these microbes are getting used to these compounds and adapting certain changes within their structure that renders them not only survival in harsh conditions but also they are found to be helpful in bio remediation of certain chemicals.
Palm oil is currently the second most important vegetable oil in the world oils and fats market, accounting for 14.35% of world production of seventeen major oils and fats, ranking only behind soyabean oil, which contributes 20.23% of world output. In terms of world exports of oils and fats, palm oil is currently leading with a market share of 32% while soyabean oil has a share of 16.2%. Palm oil and palm kernel oil have become the production growth leaders in the oils and facts complex since the early seventies (Mielke, 1991). In Nigeria the palm oil sub- sector of the agricultural sector presented itself as a potential productive sector that could be used to diversify the economy after years of neglect. Also, Antia-Obong and Bhattarai,
Natural events such as weather, flooding, fire, climate fluctuations, and ecosystem dynamics may also initiate modifications upon land cover. Globally, land cover today is altered principally by direct human use: by agriculture and livestock raising, forest harvesting and management, and urban and suburban construction and development. There are also incidental impacts on land cover from other human activities such as forests and lakes damaged by acid rain from fossil fuel combustion and crops near cities damaged by tropospheric ozone resulting from automobile exhaust (Meyer, 1995). Contemporary global change consists of two broad types, systemic and cumulative. Systemic change operates directly on the bio-chemical flows that sustain the biosphere and, depending on its magnitude, can lead to global change, just as fossil fuel consumption increases the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Surface soils, which generally get a lot of organic material from plants, will have more organic matter content. The high organic matter content is related to higher number of microbes and bigger variety of microbial populations. The organic matter acts as a depository of
THE RELEVANCE OF EDAPHIC FACTORS OF SOIL TO AGRICULTURE Marjorie Villareal INTRODUCTION Soil is very beneficial to all organisms and abiotic factors in our ecosystem (e.g., a) it serves as a filter to water and a growth medium of various species b) provides habitat for billions of organisms, contributing to biodiversity c) it is also the main supplier for many minute organisms which serves as antibiotics for many diseases). We, humans are dependent to the soil like using it as a holding facility for our solid wastes, a filter for our water waste and as foundations for our infrastructures and livelihood. Our nation’s agroecosystems based on the soil which provide us with fodder, fiber, diet and energy. Improvements in watershed, natural resource,