There are students in school whose first language might be Spanish, Chinese, or Vietnamese, among others. Students who do not understand English are considered English learners (ELs) and they “need help in learning to speak, read, and write in English” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 84). There are four programs that teachers can incorporate in response to language diversity. One program is referred to as bilingual maintenance. In a bilingual maintenance program, students continue to use their primary language while “the emphasis on English …increases in each subsequent grade” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 85).
That standard concentrates on speaking and listening. The children at the daycare listened to the teacher say good morning in Spanish and spoke what they heard. For instance, a new student joined the class. She did not know how to say good morning in other languages. The educator and the students said good morning for her, and they had her repeat after them.
This is true for other cultures, as well. A great place to learn, is in a classroom. Christopher Emdin, author of For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood... and the Rest of Y 'all Too: Reality Pedagogy and Urban Education, describes the ideal classroom setting for teaching students how to effectively code switch. Mrs. Hamma’s Basic English course depicted in Nicholasa Mohr’s short story, “The English Lesson,” is a great representation of this setting. Evidently, Emdin’s claims validate
Response from ESL students shows that though ESL sometimes generate negative labelling on children, thus affect their school life and daily life. There is also a view that sometimes language education might even weaken student’s native language and culture. Evaluation: First, I agree that some language change or language policy related to bilingualism might lead to language loss. Crystal (2014) proposed three stages of sequent events that explain how a language become endangered. His studies indicate that after bilingualism emerges, the new language might replace the old one and lead to a language extinction.
In order to increase my understanding of how students acquire a second language, I observed four class sessions of students learning a foreign language. These classes included French 102, ASL 102, and two consecutive sessions of Engl 99R. The first two classes listed are students learning French and American Sign Language, while the third class is an ESL class. In these classes I observed interactions and methods as a non-participant in order to add to my knowledge of second language acquisition. Reflecting on the sessions, I noticed comparable themes emerging.
When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
However, it will be very challenging for both teachers and students in a bilingual classroom. There are many strategies that can improve the communication in the class for teachers. I will start my essay by describing what is a bilingual education, the barriers of communication in classroom and finally I will elaborate few strategies on how to improve communication in a bilingual classroom. According to McCarty (2010),
They are considered to be “reasonably fluent in English”. The goal is to help students to meet ELD and grade-level content standards and to improve their English skills. With differentiated instruction and scaffolding, students should meet the goal to be at the native speakers comparable level. ELs are expected to meet reclassification criteria within 5 full years of instruction. • TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION The goal of the Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) program is “to promote acquisition of English language proficiency and grade-level academic achievement in core subjects.” This program focuses on a gradual transition to English instruction, usually by third grade.
The research will discuss the two components of effective classroom management: (1) the rules and procedures, and (2) the teacher-student relationship. The purpose of highlighting these two components is to show to what extent setting effective rules and procedures from the beginning of the school year can facilitate teaching and produce powerful gains in student learning. In addition to the importance of building teacher-student relationship that ensures a positive learning environment in class. Purpose of the study Marzano (2003) stated that effective instructional strategies and good classroom curriculum design are built on the foundation of effective classroom management. Therefore, poor class management can waste class time, reduce students’ time on task, and lessen the quality of the learning environment.
These fears are for example that a student’s educational chances will be decrease, that it will stump educational progress or affect the emotional well being of a student. (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 18) However, as Beardsmore points out, these fears do not exist in the cases of elite bilingualism. In fact, perceptions of elite bilingual education are the opposite, which can be seen in the example of Utah’s total immersion language-education initiative, which sees intense competition for spots (Kluger, 2013). This shows that the issue lies with perceptions and attitudes towards minorities, their languages and subsequent immersion into society, as opposed to a fundamental flaw in bilingual education. Also, there is nothing to support a claim that “bilingual education need neither cause nor compound educational problems” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 19), this meaning that there are students with various learning difficulties in both bilingual and unilingual programs and that this is not something specific or unique to bilingual education.