Biodiesel Case Study

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1.1 Biodiesel
Biodiesel is defined as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids, derived from renewable vegetable oils or animal fats for use in ignition engines. Vegetable oils which is use in preparing biodiesel is soybean oil, sunflower oil, ground nut oil, canola oil, corn oil, and waste oil which is mixture of all previous kinds of oil after been utilized(Amit, 2009; Demirbas, 2009). Biodiesel possesses technical and environmental advantages, low toxicity, derivation from a renewable sources , superior flash point than petrodiesel and biodegradability, negligible, and lower overall exhaust emissions(Tyson, 2006; Moser, 2009; Isioma et al, 2013). Biodiesel’s characteristics strongly depend on various plant feed stocks, growing
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Empirical models proposed to predict these properties at different temperatures (Nita et al., 2011).
Rao and his group made a study to estimate the mathematical relationships between the kinematic viscosity, density, heating values and flash point among various biodiesel samples. (Rao et al., 2010)
Thiago and his group studied the kinematic viscosity and presented an experiment to determine the kinematic viscosity behavior with shear rate and temperature of edible oilssuch as canola, sunflower, corn, soybean. They compared the curves obtained for the kinematic viscosity versus temperature with the curves obtained by modeling the kinematic viscosity dependency on temperature. (Thiago et al., 2013).
Moradiand his group studied the effects of temperature and volume fraction of biodiesel and diesel on the density and kinematic viscosity of blends They used five biodiesels: sunflower, canola, and soybean waste cooking oil edible tallow. Density and kinematic viscosity of mixtures were measured at several temperatures. Results showed that by reducing temperature and increasing the volume fraction of biodiesel, density and kinematic viscosity are increased (Moradi et al.,

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