Water: Water is universal solvent, used to extract plant products with antimicrobial activity. Though traditional healers use primarily water but plant extracts from organic solvents have been found to give more consistent antimicrobial activity compared to water extract. Also water soluble flavonoids (mostly anthocyanins) have no antimicrobial significance and water soluble phenolics only important as antioxidant compound (Das K et al.,2010). 2. Acetone: Acetone dissolves many hydrophilic and lipophilic components, is miscible with water, is volatile and has a low toxicity, it is a very useful extractant, especially for antimicrobial studies where more phenolic compounds are required to be extracted.
NOTE: Record the grams of gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils that are present in the 50 mL of crude oil. ➢ Select the flask, and choose Heating Mantel option afterward select Max Heat and make sure you record the temperature when you see crude oil begins to boil. ➢ When the crude oil begins to boil, Make sure you turn the temperature down to 60% by decreasing the heating metal two times. Step 3: Record the
Based on the results of single factor experiment, the ranges of three factors such as stirrer speed, pH, extraction time and extraction temperature are determined for RSM. Determination of Total Phenolic Content The phenolic content of blackgram is determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu total phenol procedure described by Spanos and Wrolstad10 with slight modifications. The phenolic content is expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) based on the absorbance at 765nm11.100ml of gallic acid stock solution was prepared by mixing with 10ml of ethyl alcohol. From the gallic acid stock solution, standard gallic acid for 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250µg/ml was
It involves liquid and vapour phases. The liquid feed enters the distillation column and is subjected to heat, which vaporises a fraction of feed. The vaporised product goes through a reflux and together with the liquid feed is heated up. This increases the purity of the distillate; usually the product chemical industries desire. As a chemical engineer designated to design a distillation column for IPA recovery, the design statement developed is a follows: “To design a tray distillation column to recover 100% Isopropanol with at least a purity of 30% and a column diameter of at least 1 foot.” 4.1.2.
Gulia et al. (2010) studied drying of aloe vera at different temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C respectively in hot air oven and powdered. The effect of convective drying on the various physico-chemical parameters such as moisture, ash, protein, crude fat, crude fibre content, pH, yield, water absorption capacity, wettability and aloin content of the aloe leaf powder were evaluated. Nindo et al. (2010) investigate the effect of spray drying, freeze drying, and refractance window drying methods for aloe vera extract on glass transition temperature, total carbohydrates, reducing groups, particle size distribution, and viscosity of solutions formed after reconstitution with deionized water.
Osmosis Investigation Aim the aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of changing the concentration of sucrose on the rate of osmosis in cylinders of potatoes. This would happen by using similar sizes and lengths potato cylinders and applying them to different concentrations of sucrose(0%, 10%, 20%, 40%) in small beakers then measuring the change in mass of the potato cylinders afterwards. Maintaining all variables unchanged such as pH, same size, and a constant temperature. time taken for all potato cylinders will be 30 minutes. Hypothesis If the potato cylinders were put in sucrose concentration where the water potential is higher than the water potential that of the potato itself that would cause the mass of the potato to
They were as follows i) N hexane ii) Petroleum ether iii) Methanol iv) Chloroform The powdered plant material (50 gm) was successively extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with an elevated temperature using 250 ml of n-hexane, followed by petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform, according to increasing solubility. All extracts were filtered individually and poured on petri dishes to evaporate the solvents from the extracted material. After drying, crude extracts were stored in stock vials and kept in refrigerator for further use. 3.2 Extraction of the Terminalia bellirica plant material Here hot solvent extraction process was used for extraction of the plant material. Four solvents were used for the extraction of the plant material.
ADVANTAGES OF USING MICROALGAE FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION:- Many articles and reports of research explained various advantages of exploiting microalgae for biodiesel production in equivalence with other uncommitted feedstocks. From a pragmatic point of position, they are gentle to crop, can turn with little or even no care, using water inapplicable for human ingestion and easy to receive alimental. Microalgae procreate themselves using photosynthesis to exchange sun energy into chemical energy, completing total growth cycle every few days. Microalgae can furnish feedstock for various dissimilar types of non conventional fuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen, among others. Algae biodiesel comprise no sulfur
LC bio-ethanol is foreseen as one of the most feasible and eco-friendly renewable alternatives of petroleum based fuels for transport sector (Saini et al., 2015). Lignocellulosic agricultural byproducts are a copious and cheap source for cellulose fibers. Agro-based biofibers have the composition, properties and structure that make them suitable for uses such as composite, textile, pulp and paper manufacture. In addition, biofibers can also be used to produce fuel, chemicals, enzymes and food. Byproducts produced from the cultivation of corn, wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, sugarcane, pineapple, banana and coconut are the major sources of agro-based biofibers.
Application: In order to indicate the activity of the bacteria, VFA extraction can be used. It could be used for the identification of food qualities, but in this case, it is used to determine the bacteria’s activity in the reactors. From protein fermentation, mainly branched fatty acids are produces, where as in carbohydrate degradation, acetate, butyrate and propionates are produced. The digestion of organic matter produces volatile fatty acids, and therefore, VFAs are highly present in wastewater (Siedlecka et al, 2008). C2-C8 volatile fatty acids analysis was performed according Andersen et al.