Wheat Honey Research Paper

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3.1 Phenolics in buckwheat honey Figure 1 illustrates the wide variety of HPLC profiles of six buckwheat honey samples. As can be seen, these samples could be divided into two main types. The first type exhibited very similar chromatograms, including samples 1, 2, 3 and 4. The retention time of most compounds is 20 to 70 min. Conversely, the second type include sample 5 and 6. Their chromatograms appeared simpler and showed only a few lower level peaks. The figure showed the highest peak is 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and occur in all honey samples, so it can be a symbol of buckwheat honey.
Phenolics are important substances contributed to sensory properties, such as color, taste, or flavor of honey(Michalkiewicz, Biesaga & Pyrzynska, 2008).
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Table 2 illustrate major carbohydrates in buckwheat honey. As can be seen, six kinds of carbohydrate were distinguished in all the honey samples, including fructose, glucose, kestose, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, panose. Fructose was likely to show the highest level ranged from 40.4% to 48.7%. The second-high content was glucose ranged 21.6% to 28.7%. Kestose, isomaltose, isomaltotriose, panose occurred in all buckwheat honey samples.
3.3 The effects of buckwheat honey on human intestinal microorganisms by Illumina Miseq
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We performed a high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our results revealed a total of 1278684 reads, which had passed all quality filters under 97 % identity conditions to obtained a total of 5954 species classification OTUs. On average, there were 180 OTUs for each sample. Observed species and Chao1 reflect the richness of species within a single sample, while Shannon indexes represent microbial diversity. Observed species, Chao1and Shannon indexes in the eight buckwheat honey samples and FOS samples were lower than BLK samples and ORI samples. Comparing buckwheat honey samples, FOS samples and control samples by Chao1and Shannon index, we could draw a conclusion that buckwheat honey samples and FOS samples seem to confine bacteria. As be indicated in Table 3, it is worth noting, the OTUs of sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and FOS is low than BLK and ORI samples suggested buckwheat honey samples may restrain gut

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