Louis P. Masur’s book, The civil War: a Concise History, Is a book that gives an overview of the civil war from 18 to 1800, Providing multiple causes an consequences that emerged from the war. The book begins by reviewing the origins of the war. Chapter one covers the issues between northern and southern states and the tension over right and slave possession. The tension created a conflict that raised a number of political, social, and military events that then proceeded into a battle to abolish slavery from the colonies. After that, In April 1861, the the first shot of the war was fired and more than 600,000 soldiers were killed and wounded. A large portion of the South was consumed by violent battles, making the Union nearly
During the antebellum period, the huge differences existed between the North and the South in many ways. To begin with, the economy of the North once was similar to that of the South; however, as the U.S. started to develop economically, the North became more industrialized. With the advent of the new technologies, factories in the North could produce more things than before to supply the strong market demand of the nation. On the contrary, the South still was a farming region where farmers mainly worded on plantations to grow cotton. To make more profits, the wealthy plantation owners in the South started to force slaves to labor on the plantations. As a result, slavery became an important part in the southern industry, which also led to the controversy of the slavery issue. Furthermore, the different economic system between the two camps widened the economic gap between the North and the South. While the former enjoyed more economic development and profits, the latter suffered seriously from economic losses.
In chapter one, Lincoln and Liberty, of Chandra Manning’s What This Cruel War Was Over, (2007), Manning explains that although there were many reasons for why a solider white or black, Union or Confederate, slavery was the ultimate cause of the Civil War. At first Manning lists all the reasons soldiers from certain backgrounds enlisted but then she shows how those reasons were connected to slavery or how slavery very quickly became the reason someone was fighting. She does this in order to show the reader that slavery affected everyone is some way or another and that is why it became the main cause of the war. I believe Manning is successful in showing the relation between slavery and the soldiers fighting for its continuation or its end. Manning
The Civil War was a national devastation that had a deep impact on American society. In 1863, Lincoln proposed the Emancipation Proclamation declaring the slaves would be free, though it was limited only to the rebellious states. By careful preparation of the document, Lincoln ensured that it would offer a positive impact on the Union efforts and to redefine the purpose of the civil war. The results of the emancipation continued to have an abrupt and profound effect of equality and social justice (Roark, 402).
The Reconstruction Era of American history was plagued by many problems. One of the most important problems being the recently released from slavery Freedmen. Freedmen were in a tricky situation in which they had just been released from their owner and had nowhere to go, but the Federal Government made many successful attempts to help them out. The Government helped alleviate all the problems Freedmen had from their finances to basic needs and rights, and in doing so, made the period of reconstruction more helpful than harmful for Freedmen. The events of reconstruction were helpful to freedmen as they were not only freed from slavery, they were given rights directly from the federal government.
Before the Civil War broke out, the South was the most powerful section of the country; it was the wealthiest, controlled Congress, and produced Presidents. Yet, slavery influenced all of these factors. The 4 million slaves that were seen as property, free labor, and assets proved to be an enormous, economic benefit. Even the most powerful slave owners were living comfortably and saw themselves as more entitled than the Northerners. As the Civil War progressed, especially during 1863, anxiety plagued the slave owners since their Southern civilization and way of life was being threatened by the Union Army. “This was not merely an economic blow; it was a challenge to and rejection of their most basic views, values, and identities.” (#158). Slavery was around in the United States for over 2 centuries before the Civil War and many Southerners deeply depended on it for they knew of no life without it. Once Abraham Lincoln was elected into office in 1860, masters viewed him as treasonous and perceived the slaves who began to show resistance to their demands as
“The blacks, as a people, are unfitted for the proper exercise of political duties…..” said a Boston newspaper in 1873 saying that the Africans-Americans were too dumb to be in Congress or any political office. Three years later, was the 100th year anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. With the irony of the election of 1876 had officially crushed the African-American dream. In 1877, the Reconstruction efforts finally ended, so people were wondering who killed Reconstruction. The North is at fault since they had “more important” events happening at that time, instead of fixing the southern part of the country.
When the union won the civil war in 1865 it gave millions slaves their freedom but there was a bigger process in rebuilding the south. As Andrew Johnson in 1865 new southern state leaders passed “Blacks Codes” to control the behavior of former slaves and blacks. Many people in the north were very upset about these codes. since the North was very upset with this indecent that happened. It wore away their supporter known as the presidential reconstruction and led to victories of the radical parts of the republican party. During the radical reconstruction that happen in 1867, blacks finally gained opportunity to speak for the first time in american history. They were able to win elections to southern states leaders and even congress. However there were many groups that didn 't not like blacks and they came back in a violent way for them to restore power from the
I find it very interesting that the southern colonies distinguished themselves from the New England colonies so early on. I never realized that the slave trade and the plantation class developed so early in American history and it’s fascinating that these differences eventually became large factors in the outbreak of the Civil War. The South’s cash crops required vast amounts of human labor and slavery was essential for the economic health of the southern colonies. Furthermore, this gives insight to the reason pre-Civil War era southern elites were so adamant that the South remain a slave society.
The Civil War was the most destructive battle in American history. The hurricane of a battle lasted for four years and is responsible for 785,000-1,000,000 Union, Confederate, and slave casualties. The battle was fought for the overall emancipation of slaves, and the Union succeeded in fulfilling that goal. You would think that after that war and after slavery was abolished once and for all, everyone would be happy and everyone would join together and sing Kumbaya; however, that's not exactly what happened. The Reconstruction Era was more destructive for slaves than the war itself. After the war, freed slaves were denied the right to vote, they were not provided with jobs or a safe place to go once they were free, and there were groups of people
Many historians, researchers, politicians, and scholars have considered reconstruction as turning point for the ratification of equality laws that would eliminate racial segregation for equally rights. However, a close follow-up of the controversial developments that occurred immediately after the end of the Civil War in 1865 indicates dissimilarity. The reconstruction era might have made a history of enabling African Americans to vote and become state legislatures, but some major political personnel consider Reconstruction as a failure, which led to non-ending political controversies, murder, and assaults indicating general failure. Robert Smalls and Wade Hampton are some of the major political people who participated in the continuity of the Reconstruction era and their actions and words prove its failure, as explored in this study. However, their consideration of black freedom contrast because Smalls demonstrates the harmful actions of
The Civil War began in 1861 but the issue of slavery was not the central focus of the war effort. The war began for many political reasons, mainly the aim of the Union side to preserve the Union and make sure it remains together as a country. While the North fought to preserve the Union, the South fought to preserve what they believed to be state rights. During the war, Abraham Lincoln created what is called the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that “all person held as slaves” within rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” Following the war, African Americans throughout the war led to an alteration in the goals of the war, and therefore a contribution to the new politics and culture that followed later.
After the proclamation that established the end of slavery was signed and that this could not happen again, three amendments to the Constitution were adopted to clarify what the new status meant for former slaves, descendants of Africans and other races, including some whites who had been under forced servitude. Known as the Reconstruction amendments are 13, 14 and 15 respectively, which grant equal protection before the law, give the same privileges to all citizens and grant the right to vote. Despite the amendments, there were many obstacles and challenges, from the physical liberation of all slaves, their integration into society and the development of interracial relationships.
In the mid-nineteenth-century, the economic power switched in the South from the “upper South” to the “lower South,” which was expanding agriculturally. This switch resulted in the growth of a cotton-based economy. Economically, the change from cultivating tobacco and rice to cotton helped immensely. The high demand for cotton led to tremendous profits in the South and this drew the population to move to the prospering agricultural lands. The increase in cotton farming made African American slaves a necessity to the white males. These slaves were required to obey their masters and work the fields all day. The increase in slavery changed the social systems down South; the order now went African American slaves, poor white males, and at the top was wealthy white plantation owners.
The Civil War and the period of Reconstruction brought significant political, social, and economic changes to American society, and these effects continued into the 20th century.