The purpose of this experiment was to study the purification of an unknown solution through the process of recrystallization. Recrystallization is a process of the solid organic compound being purified, and impurities soluble at high temperature to form crystals. The identification of an unknown compound was determined through the process of recrystallization. The use of solvent determines the recrystallization process, so the selection of an appropriate solvent is vital for this process since the solubility of the crystals in the hot solvent, is dependent on decreased solubility when the solution is cooling. The solubility test helps in the determination of an appropriate solvent for a specific solute based on whether or not the solute dissolves
According to the article “Why Does a Color Change Indicate a Chemical Change?” by Bill Robertson, it stated, “There are a number of indicators you can use to determine whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred.”3 This shows that chemical reaction can be identified by some specific indicators. It also stated “Among them are a change in color,
There are many risks involved when dealing with pharmaceutical products. There are technical risks and commercial risks. That technical risks would involve drugs that never make it into the market after a lot of time and money has been wasted on it. There is a lot of financial risks during the research and development phase because most products get discarded before they reach the
Crystallization is attained by a three step process, first supersaturation state, second nucleation and third growth of crystals. For solute to leave the solution a certain degree of supersaturation is necessary, where the solvent will contain excess of solute that it can contain at a particular temperature , . Some of the methods that induce supersaturation are methods based on change in temperature, solvent removal, drowning out and reaction partners . Crystallization of APIs has been studied using various methods though cooling crystallization  and anti-solvent crystallization  have been most common. Even though cooling crystallization and anti-solvent crystallization are convenient, it has major drawbacks in terms of slow rate of crystallization, high supersaturation degree , solvent and anti-solvent selection based on solubility.
They change from the temperature of the container (which is not always room temperature) to room temperature. This means there might be slight variation in the temperature of the substances used for the experiment. Temperature affects the rate of collision by adding or lessening the amount of kinaesthetic energy for particle collision. Thereby affecting the rate of reaction. Wait for substance to adjust to room temperature before use.
It therefore shows us that when temperature rises, the crystal forms will change as they are affected by changes in temperature. This will then result in an expansion in the volume of the crystal when the temperature rises. As mentioned, at the transition point of 980K, the structure will transform from a α-model to the β-model and become a hexagonal unit cell. The various diagrams below portray this, which reflects the changes that the crystal form undergoes at 980K-transition
Drug, which may cause a physiological change in the body when consumed. There are varieties of drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin and more. It is scientifically proven that drugs are medically useful which can cure certain illness. On the contrary, some drugs are illegally used for an improper aim which can cause danger to the society. There are a lot of pros and cons of legalizing drugs.
In this experiment, the behaviour of water during boiling process is observed. When water is heated to boiling temperature at constant volume, different regimes are observed until it reaches to saturation pressure. If the pressure is above 1.013 bar, the water is supersaturated. The pressure at which boiling occurs is known as saturation pressure. The standard conditions at which water boiling take place are 100C and 1.013 bar.
The dissolving of a drug is highly dependent on the acidity of the solution, in this case our stomach acid. The general rule of thumb is that the pH (1-5) be low in order for the capsule to dissolve quickly. The speed at which the dose dissolved also depend on its form, and can be either tablet, capsule, powder, or etc. If we use a tablet for example, the manufacturer may add starch in order to make the pill swell when water is added which could speed up the process. On the other hand, some processes may require a slower process, or prolong the effect of the drug.
(2010), different structure of crystal will have different physical characteristics, thus can alter the use of the chemical. The physical characteristics that may be differ include solubility, density, melting point, colour, size and shape of the crystal. In term of stability, β’ is more stable than α but less stable than β. β’ crystal form is suitable for margarine, shortening and bakery products because it gives smooth texture, shiny surface and good meltdown properties. Meanwhile, β will gives hard texture, loss of spreadibility, brittle and unpleasant product. To test the polymorphism of the fat, X-ray diffraction technique can be used.