The journal entitled “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of the International Human Rights –Friends or Foes”, written by Oonagh Reitman is a good fully equipped critical journal since the author put the focus on the discussion about the similarity between two branches of international human rights, the cultural relativist and the feminist in term of their critiques towards the international human rights and also present the fact of the clash between these two critiques when talking about women’s human rights. This critical review paper will provide a summary of the journal by Oonagh Reitman and more importantly giving arguments of evaluation, comments as well as suggestions to Reitman’s writings itself. Summary The journal is well organized by the author. Reitman has divided the journal into 3 sections to answer how these critiques from two different branches of the international human rights, the cultural relativism and the feminism, clash each other in term of women’s international human rights. The first section contains the examination of cultural relativism argument related to the human rights of women.
Hevi Rahmania 016201400072 President University Reitman, O. (1997). “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights”,100(1), 100-110. The journal, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights”, by Oonagh Reitman endeavors to address the critiques towards the International Human Rights from two different branches which are coming from cultural relativist and feminist. The addressed problem in this journal is despite the apparent tension between these two clashing critiques, there are similarities found in order for both to operate together.
The Journal, “Feminists of International Law and Their Critics”, by Hilary Charlesworth seeks to address the relationship of women and international human rights law. This journal also tell about feminist critiques of International law. This Journal consists of four parts which are the first part is about Feminist Criticism of International law that in this part according to feminist analysis of International law has divided in to two major roles which are deconstructive and reconstructive. Second part of journal is the incoherent critique. Third part is about the essential critique.
Oonagh begins her journal by stating that her purpose in writing the journal is to describe how these two critiques have come to against each other in the world of women’s international human rights. At the first section, it discusses the exposition of cultural relativist arguments that created in the term of women’s human rights. It explained through the crossing and disagreement between the feminist and relativist critiques. The first section also discusses about the suggestions over cultural relativism that likely have a negative effect on the implementation of women’s human rights. It discusses that cultural relativism brings bad influence towards feminist.
On the other hand, on the side of feminist, they rather believe that in the real life the one who holds the human rights are not women but men, and ‘that gender equality, and freedom from discrimination for women, is given a low priority in the international arena’ (Donnelly in Reitman 1997, 100). This journal attempts to explain to the readers how both cultural
The article, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights – Friends or Foes?” by Oonagh Reitman seeks to address how cultural relativist and feminist sees the existence of the international human rights, specifically women’s human rights. The research problem being addressed is the similarities between these two critiques of international human rights and how these two critiques have come to defy one another when it comes to the term of women’s international human rights. The author has made it clear that this is a debatable issue. The cultural relativist argued on the universality of human rights, which contradicts with the statement that human rights are those held simply by virtue of being human and whose substance, form and interpretation are not subject to variations in culture (Donnelly 1989: 109-110). Cultural relativist uphold that culture is the principle source of any rights or rules, they argued that the existence of women’s human rights cannot be universally applied.
The first part is explain and discuss about the culture relativism argument that are made in the field of Women rights in the United Nations conferences and in CEDAW also how those two critiques are arguing and debating each other about International Women rights. The second part in this journal is comparing the differences and discussing about the similarities of Feminism and Cultural Relativism, in this part the journal writer also discuss about the possibilities for them to cooperate with aims to reach their own goal. The critique that suggest them that there is possibility to cooperate, not to fight each other to avoid the worry about women welfare. And in the last part the journal writer are explain and discuss about the cooperative approaches to achieve the possibility that they can work together and cooperate to reach their
This journal article, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights - Friends or Foes?” by Oonagh Reitman seeks to rouse discussion about the similarities between two critiques of universal human rights: cultural relativists and feminists, despite the antagonistic position both groups tend to take against each other. In the beginning, he lays out the basis of critique of international human rights by each camp. Cultural relativists argue that the universal human rights which are earned simply ‘by virtue of being human’ (Donnelly in Reitman 1997, 100) are insensitive to the diversity of culture. Feminists, on the other hand, criticize that universal human rights guarantee only men’s rights and that ‘gender equality and freedom from discrimination for women is given a low priority in the international arena’ (Reitman 1997, 100). Reitman then examines the combative relationship between the two groups.
Manning's Speaking from the Heart: A Feminist Perspective on Ethics (1992). In the first, Callahan offers an optimistic analysis of the heart's contributions to morality. Her eight untechnical chapters provide a clear picture of a complex phenomenon, one that takes into account new psychological understandings of the self, emotion, reason, intuition, developmental change and problem solving. Central to Callahan's case for realism in making moral decisions is her conviction that complete detachment and objectivity are not only impossible, they are undesirable, since the stronger our convictions and the more we appreciate something, the deeper our affections. Callahan argues that emotion, reason, and intuition should be fully integrated and engaged in our depictions of decision making, that we "need to make decisions in a wholistic way that does justice to all our moral resources" (113).
INTRODUCTION The journal of Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights - Friends or Foes by Oonagh Reitman discuss about the similarities between two critiques of international human rights by cultural relativists and by feminists. This journal divided into three main focus there are the argument of cultural relativism and disagreement between the feminist. The second discuss about the possibility that they can operate together and the last section will be used cooperative approach to achieve their respective goals. SUMMARY From journal Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights - Friends or Foes by Oonagh Reitman discuss about there are two criticisms of international human rights