The Peripheral Perfusion index (PI) is the ratio of the pulsatile blood flow to the non-pulsatile or static blood in peripheral tissue. Perfusion Index thus represents a non-invasive measure of peripheral perfusion that can be continuously and noninvasively obtained from a pulse oximeter. A site with high pulse amplitude (high PI number) generally indicates an optimal monitoring site for other pulse oximetry and Pulse CO-Oximetry measures. The fingertip is the standard monitoring site for pulse oximetry. The difference between the rate of oxygenated haemoglobin and reduced haemoglobin as arterial oxygen saturation is measured by the amount of light absorbed by the tissue when light is transmitted through the finger.
Ventilation/perfusion scans: Ventilation/perfusion scans, sometimes called a VQ (V=Ventilation, Q=perfusion) scan, is a way of identifying mismatched areas of blood and air supply to the lungs. It is primarily used to detect a pulmonary embolus. The perfusion part of the study uses a radioisotope tagged to the blood which shows where in the lungs the blood is perfusing. If the scan shows up any area missing a supply on the scans this means there is a blockage which is not allowing the blood to perfuse that part of the organ. Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.
These two free ions bind together forming a carbonic acid intermediate that reacts further with carbonic anhydrase converting it back into a gas. Ventilation is controlled by respiratory centres in the brainstem. Ventilation is modified in response to inputs from sensory afferents in order to maintain homeostasis of partial pressures and pH of the blood. There are multiple types of sensory afferents related to ventilation: central and peripheral chemoreceptors, pulmonary stretch receptors, irritant receptors and proprioceptors. These sensory afferents send impulses to two anatomical regions within the central nervous system; the pontine respiratory centre and the medullary respiratory
The Cardio respiratory wellness, something many refer to as cardio, cardio perseverance, continuance, oxygen consuming wellness, or vigorous limit, is one of the fundamental segments of physical wellness. Cardio respiratory wellness is a condition in which the body's cardiovascular (circulatory) and respiratory frameworks work together, particularly amid exercise or work, to guarantee that sufficient oxygen ids provided to the working muscles to create vitality.  Physical wellness can be thought of as an incorporated measure of most, if not all, the body capacities (skeletomuscular, Cardio respiratory, Hematocirulatory, Psycho neurological and Endocrine-Metabolic) engaged with the execution of day by day physical movement and additionally
A spirometer generates a spirogram which is used to measure a person’s total lung capacity (the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold), tidal volume (the amount of air moving into or out of the lungs during one breathing cycle), and functional residual capacity (the volume of air left in the lungs after passive respiration) (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015). A spirometer can also measure additional air that is inhaled and exhaled from a person’s normal respiration called inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015).
Respiratory sounds can also define as breath sounds or lung sounds. It is generated through the turbulence of airflow in our respiratory tract. The air breath in and out are transmitted through air, liquid and solid and to the chest wall. Each properties of substance that the air attenuated lead to different degree and intensity of breath sounds (Jones, 1995a). Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001).
Causes: kidney disease, smoking, alcohol and diet. Effects: angina, strokes and heart attacks. Describe the condition Hypotension: This is consistent low blood pressure that remains below the normal level of 120/80. Causes: temporary shock, hemorrhage, dehydration, anemia and allergic reaction. Effects: dizziness, poor balance, fainting, confusion and disorientation.
Introduction: Blood pressure is the measure of the force on arteries applying by blood as pumping out of the heart. Blood pressure measurement includes systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the force that the heart needs to create to get the blood start to flow in our circulatory system; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is the pressure on arteries when the heart relaxes before pumping the blood out of the heart. Another factor that helps us to have a better understanding of blood pressure is mean arterial pressure (MAP) which is the average pressure in a person’s arteries during a single cardiac cycle. Resting blood pressure in a normal and healthy person is defined as 120/80 mm Hg with a resting heart rate
Safe use of NPPV and regional anaesthesia combination for caesarean section have previously described with several case reports in patients with respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis, neuromuscular diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (3-5). In our patient, acute pulmonary oedema developed presumably because of tachycardia caused by anxiety and pain caused by preterm labour in our patient with pre-existing multivalvular heart disease and limited cardiac reserve. Management of these patients is difficult, because guidelines and standards are lacking. Some authors have described the use of general anaesthesia with good maternal outcome, whereas others have reported increased pulmonary arterial pressure during laryngoscopy and
S. No Mode of recovery No. of cases 1 Total lung expansion 19 2 Lung expansion with pleural thickening/fibrosis 20 3 Chronic pneumothorax referred to thoracic surgery 6 4 Absconded 5 5 Expired 0 Discussion: Pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space that causes an uncoupling of the lung from the chest wall; pneumothorax interferes with normal breathing. Symptoms typically include chest pain and breathing difficulty leading to a collapsed lung. A primary pneumothorax is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease, while a secondary pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung disease. A pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest wall or as a complication of a healthcare intervention which is referred to as traumatic pneumothorax.
Nursing consideration: Require regular monitoring of activated partial thromboplasitn time (aPTT) and needed frequent heparin dose changes (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 765). Fibrinolytic therapy: This therapy is given to dissolve the thrombus in the artery and restore the blood flow. There are two fibrinolytic drugs which are streptokinase and Recombinant tissue plasminogen activators (r-TPA) which includes Alteplase, reteplase and tenecteplase (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 772). Fibrinolytic therapy would be commenced within 4-6 hours of myocardial infarction to restore blood flow, reduce oxygen demand and reduce myocardial tissue damage (Silvestri,
The HAS-BLED score is recommended for bleeding risk assessment. HAS-BLED assigns one point for the presence of each of the following: hypertension (uncontrolled systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg), abnormal renal and/or liver function, previous stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, and concomitant drugs and/or alcohol excess. The HAS-BLED scores range from 0-9, with scores of 3 or more indicating high bleeding risk. HAS-BLED allows providers to identify bleeding risk factors and correct modifiable risk factors in order to decrease the patient’s risk of bleeding. HAS-BLED bleeding risk assessment should not be used as a tool to exclude patients from getting anticoagulation therapy but rather identify patients in whom caution should be used with such
The trade names are Proventil, Ventolin, and Volmax. Indication(s): It is appropriate to administer albuterol to a patient who exhibits signs and symptoms of a respiratory emergency, who has a physician-prescribed inhaler, and with the specific authorization from medical direction to use it. Effects: Albuterol is used as a bronchodilator, which means it enlarges the patient’s respiratory passages to make breathing easier for a patient experiencing respiratory difficulty.
PULMONARY OEDEMA Introduction Pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Left ventricular failure and also a result of non-cardiogenic complications (Deepak, 2010). In this essay the three main causes of oedema will be explained, the pathophysiology, the intensity factors and the management in a pre-hospital setting. Causes of Pulmonary Oedema The two main causes of oedema are cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema is defined as the build-up of fluid in the lungs usually due to Heart failure. When the heart loses the ability to pump out blood to systemic circulation, it back flows into the pulmonary circulation.
The estimation of preload is based on the assumption that pressure and volume are equated. Therefore, pressures are used to estimate end diastolic volume. Likewise, RA pressure is used to assess end diastolic volume of the RV, and PAWP is used to evaluate left ventricular preload. Afterload is the resistance to ventricular ejection and is influenced by PVR. PVR assesses the right ventricular afterload, and SVR indexed to BSA estimates left ventricular afterload (Morton & Fontaine, 2013).