This experiment was preformed with the intent of discovering the affect of alcohol on E2F transcription factor proteins from HT-1080 cells. Western analysis was used to determine if alcohol has an effect on E2F isoforms.
The E2F transcription factor family has many important roles within the body. In general, the E2F family is important for controlling cell cycle and tumor suppression. (e2f1 e2f transcription factor 1). E2F transcription factors also contain several different domains relating to DNA binding, dimerization, transactivation, and tumor suppression. In total, there are eight isoforms of E2F transcription factor protein. The first isoform is E2F1, which has a molecular weight of approximately 46.9kDa (E2f gene protein …show more content…
These three isoforms have a cyclin A binding domain, DNA binding domain, dimerization domain, and a transcriptional activation domain with a pocket protein binding domain. They are also all activators involved in G1/S cell cycle transactions. When these isoforms experience a loss of function it results in cell cycle arrest and when they are over expressed the cell cycle is driven into S phase (Attowooll). E2F4 and E2F5 isoforms have similar characteristics with molecular weights of approximately 44.0 kDa and 37.6 kDa respectively (E2f gene protein coding). These two isoforms have a DNA binding domain, dimerization domain, and a transcriptional activation domain with a pocket protein binding domain. Both isoforms are inhibitors that mainly work within nuclear G0/G1 cells and can bind to retinoblastoma proteins (pRB) (Attowool). The main function of these isoforms is to induce cell cycle exit and differentiation. If these isoforms are overexpressed they do not drive cells into the S phase. E2F6 has a molecular weight of …show more content…
It is known that alcohol can cause damage and functional problems to protein, carbohydrates, and fat metabolism (mezzo). Due to this knowledge, it was expected that E2F transcription factor proteins would be affected by alcohol. In order to perform this experiment, HT-1080 cells were acquired from a fibrosarcoma of a 35-year-old human male. The concentration of protein in the HT-1080 cells was determined and then Western analysis was performed. Image J software was used to analyze the Western Blot in order to determine protein density and determine if there was a significant change of E2F isoforms density when exposed to
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C4564 Description: IC50: 3-AP is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and iron chelator with antitumor activity. Ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis, is an excellent target for chemotherapy. Its increased activity in cancer cells is associated with malignant transformation and proliferation.
Minggang Fang, Fen Xia, Meera Mahalingam, Ching-Man Virbasius, Narendra Wajapeyee and Michael R. Green. (May, 2013) INTRODUCTION: MEN1 is a protein localized in the nucleus that is known to assist in various cellular activates involving cell cycle regulation, transcription, and cellular proliferation. Mutations in the MEN1 gene that result in its loss of function are linked to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. This type of familial cancer syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant disease which results in an increased
From the data obtained in Tables 1-3, we were able to plot multiple graphs using excel. These graphs give a better representation of the data as seen in Figures 1-9. It can be seen that each figure shows a slight increase in CO2 production, which signifies a possible change in metabolic rate. Figures 4 and 7 show a relatively large change between the control and fox urine. The changes in slope between theses two are 0.0267 for Figure 4’s slopes and 0.0192 for Figure 7’s slopes.
It binds and stabilizes actin filaments, as well as regulating actin-myosin interaction in a calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)- and/or phosphorylation-dependent manner.(17) The domain of this protein includes binding activities to Ca++-calmodulin, actin, tropomyosin, myosin, and phospholipids. As
Tumor suppressor genes in typical cells act as braking signs during the G1 stage of the cell cycle, to stop or moderate the cell cycle before S stage. If tumor suppressor genes are transformed as in a cancer cell, the brake component will be disabled, leading to uncontrolled development. The S Phase is the second period of the cell cycle which is the Synthesis stage. When the Synthesis phase
Transformation in bacteria usually takes place when a bacterial cell accepts strange DNA and integrates to its own DNA. The transformation normally takes place within plasmids, which are tiny circular DNA molecules that have been separate from its own chromosome. The copies of the same plasmid range from 10 to 200 copies within a cell. These copies of plasmids may multiply when the chromosome replicate or multiply independently. One plasmid has a range of 1,000 to 200,000 base pairs.
NIH Senior Health states that when people drink beer, wine and other kinds of drinks, the alcohol goes to the bloods team and then it spreads throughout the body. Then the alcohol moves through the metabolism. Metabolism is a one of the converting substances that our body usually uses. It affects the brain and other more when alcohol is break down into our body. On the other hand, when people drink alcohol, the concentration of alcohol in the blood goes to a peak and it decreases when metabolism makes the alcohol down.
A. The organ I choose to analyze was the brain. The main way alcohol affects the brain is by affecting the chemical messengers that control emotions and behaviors. Alcohol also affects memory retention and energy levels. The long-term effects of alcohol on the brain are really dangerous.
The alcohol exposure effects the child’s Intelligence, attention span, learning, memory, and motor abilities. Children with Fetal alcohol syndrome have social concerns. These children usually have difficulty in school, poor social skills, trouble adapting to change, behavior issues, and poor impulse control.
This article also discusses how alcohol can impair the recovery process of an athlete by causing a disruption of the white blood cells When reading this article, I consequently noticed that based off of different consumption of alcohol and the person, it will be very hard to determine the effect of alcohol in a general fact. Alcohol has many immune and endocrine system effects that impair blood flow and other system, causing strength, power, muscle endurance, etc. to
The effects of alcohol on Biological Membranes. Introduction In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials.
From this research and literature the expected results of the experiment were to see an increase in membrane permeability, this result was observed. The study provides a brief insight into what kind of effects alcohol can have on cell membranes but it is limited. The results can be used to understand but not explain more practical applications, like human cells for example. Conclusion