Firstly, about its integrated features, it combined the strengths of various theories which describe human behavior helpfully. Secondly, the concepts of person-in-environment introduce the behaviors of individuals interconnect with families, organizations, local communities and so on. This feature making this approach a diverse perspective to support general social work practice. Lastly, as Miley, K.K., O'Melia, M.W. & DuBois, B mentioned, “the concepts focuses on how people and their environments fit clearly, rather than forcing workers to place blame on either one for problems that arise”.
In the Ecology Systems Theory, the primary influences are intercultural, community-level, organisational-level and interpersonal/individual (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). The individual, community, organisation and culture are nested spheres as actions in one sphere can influence what happens in another sphere (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). Interpersonal microsystem consists of roles a person plays within his or her social setting, such as mother, sister, father, brother, employee, friend, peer and/or student (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). These microsystems influences can be learned but are also ingrained based on gender, ethnicity, generational influences and culture (Rimer and Glanz, 2005). In this sphere personality, knowledge, and beliefs are important in that they are continually shaped by the environment and other individual with whom one comes in contact with (Rimer and Glanz, 2005).
These systems are a set of behaviors activated by environmental stimuli. The attachment system is activated in order to reconnect with a person that provides them emotional safety. The exploratory system allows a person to explore their surrounding environment. Also, the fear/wariness system is used to withdraw from frightening and distressing situations. Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models.
Introduction Performing assessments in the social work career is a pivotal tool used by all professional social workers. This tool enables the social worker to identify the strengths, weaknesses, resources that are hidden that the client possess, and the services available within the community. Additionally, this tool can be used to set smart goals for the client. Resulting in the social worker, and client achieving a holistic or ecological understanding of different relationships. Thus, explaining the social and personal relationships within the environment as support systems.
b) The strengths and challenges that may be faced are as follow. Strengths: • Giving the autonomy to the service user/community: Both the theories provide the client or community; here children and families to utilize their self-determination and their individual power to bring change. • Sustainability: The system theory tends to fix the maladjustment between the environment and the client for a long-term whereas the strength perspective focuses on amplification of the innate strengths within client; focuses on sustainability. • Holistic approach: Both the theories show a holistic approach; they cover different aspects, traits and systems which define the client and his behavior in whole. • Social Work values: The theories embody the core social work values such as valuing the dignity and worth of our client, their self-determination and protection as the first priority.
I most often use, and in line with Sara’s case: “The Interactional Theory” and “Strength Based Practice”. “The Interactional Theory” of Social Work is a form of practice used by Social Workers which establishes a working, but most importantly, positive relationship with a client. Shulman, L. (2015). This is similar to the “Contracting” phase but is an ongoing practice used throughout sessions with clients. This is an essential and foundation stage of client sessions, in my opinion.
The theoretical format Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO), focuses on the individual, the environment, and the occupation. With the PEO format, we see the physical, social and cultural elements of where occupational therapy takes place (Scaffa, 2010, p.35). The PEO ties in person-environment interaction, person-occupation interaction, and the person-environment-occupation interaction (Scaffa, 2010, p. 36). The PEO is similar to that of the OT framework because the OT framework as well describes environment as having physical and social components. It mentions the social aspect of the environment that includes relationships and expectations with other individuals.
During my observation, Destiny was showing cognitive development, socio-emotional development, development in cultural context, and motivation and mindsets. Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy, which is a key component in social cognitive theory. Bandura defined perceived self-efficacy
What does social work mean to you? Why do you want to be a social worker? When you think about yourself as a professional social worker, what do you see as your strengths and areas for development? My interest in social work started upon the realization I was the person my family and friends would seek out for support. I enjoyed listening to others and helping them through difficult times.
The culture of a community is defined by the living patterns of the members of the society. Culture has an important place in one’s identity. Identity is a process of becoming, constructing from the matrix of similarities and difference. Culture is a source of reviving the cultural identity. The culture enables us to locate our identity in a cultural space.