Elaboration Likelihood Model

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The Elaboration Likelihood Model was established in 1980s by John Cacioppo and Richard E. Petty. ELM is one of the most influential and important theory of persuasion. This approach explains how attitudes are shaped, changed when the process of persuasion is taking place, i.e. what level of elaboration arises during receiving the persuasive message by the recipient.
Two levels of ELM can be distinguished: high level and low level. Level of elaboration regulates the processing route that the presented message takes. According to this theory two processing routes can be described: central and peripheral.
High level of elaboration is connected with central route occurs when the information included in the message is strongly investigated by
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The recipient is affected by superficial level of the communication for instance visual and social factors. The more arguments are going to be given to the receiver, the greater probability that he or she will be persuaded. The receiver is not motivated or involved, then it is recommended to include in the message attractive source factors. In contrast to central processing route, it is quantity of arguments that is crucial, receivers persuaded by the peripheral route are passive, they are not highly involved in the topic and the message, they are not likely to investigate and pay much attention to the main information, and due to those facts That is why attitudes shaped or reinforced in such way, are mostly of short…show more content…
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
In 1951, Leon Festinger established the theory of cognitive dissonance. This approach describes the discomfort that appears when someone’s beliefs, behaviour and perception are contradictory and tries to investigate how to eliminate the dissonance that arises.
Dissonance appears at the moment in which one’s beliefs are different to his or her behaviour. For example, person believes that smoking has bad influence on health, but that person still smokes.
As reported by Festinger (1962:3), individual is going to try to reduce the dissonance, because the existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance.
Trying to understand Cognitive Dissonance Theory, one may ask about strategies to reduce the feeling of discomfort. This approach suggests that individual should change the actions (e.g. stop smoking, give up driving the car etc.) may change the knowledge that influences his or her beliefs. The person is going to reduce the feeling of dissonance. However, one does not have effect on the occurrence of dissonance.
Dissonance arises

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