The Elaboration Likelihood Model

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The Elaboration Likelihood Model was established in 1980s by John Cacioppo and Richard E. Petty. ELM is one of the most influential and important theory of persuasion. This approach explains how attitudes are shaped, changed when the process of persuasion is taking place, i.e. what level of elaboration arises during receiving the persuasive message by the recipient.
Two levels of ELM can be distinguished: high level and low level. Level of elaboration regulates the processing route that the presented message takes. According to this theory two processing routes can be described: central and peripheral.
High level of elaboration is connected with central route occurs when the information included in the message is strongly investigated by
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The recipient is affected by superficial level of the communication for instance visual and social factors. The more arguments are going to be given to the receiver, the greater probability that he or she will be persuaded. The receiver is not motivated or involved, then it is recommended to include in the message attractive source factors. In contrast to central processing route, it is quantity of arguments that is crucial, receivers persuaded by the peripheral route are passive, they are not highly involved in the topic and the message, they are not likely to investigate and pay much attention to the main information, and due to those facts That is why attitudes shaped or reinforced in such way, are mostly of short duration.
Elaboration Likelihood Model assumes that effective persuasion relies not only on logical information and reasonable elements (central route) of the presented message but also on social or visual factors (peripheral route).
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If one is able to cope with the dissonance, at the same time can make a choice faster.

2.2. Visual presentation of an Advertisement with Regard to Its Persuasive Potential
Advertisement, as previously investigated, has to draw one’s attention and promote particular product. Amid this feature, the essence of advertising is visual communication. As the role of language is crucial in further analysis, the visual presentation is the first element that make the receiver be interested with the advertisement.
First of all, to understand the point of use visual elements in advertising, it has to be defined. One of the most popular website www.study.com gives such definition: visual communication is the transmission of information and ideas using symbols and imagery. It is one of three main types of communication, along with verbal communication (speaking) and non-verbal communication (tone, body language etc.). Visual communication is believed to be the type that people rely on most, and it includes signs, graphic design, films, typography, and countless other examples
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