Environmental Sanitation Variables

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Environmental Sanitation Variables and Malaria Incidence in Semi-Arid Karamoja Region
For the duration of doctoral study, I intend to conduct two research projects where one project will dependent on the other. The first project will establish the association between environmental sanitation variables and malaria incidence, and the second project will demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention targeting ‘removal’ of the associated environmental sanitation risk factors in malaria control and prevention.
1. Potential research question that I would be interested in studying
a) What significant Environmental Sanitation variables affect Malaria Incidence
b) How effective is intervention targeting significant Environmental Sanitation variables
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flooding with stagnant waters, providing breeding ground for mosquito vector. There is open defecation, and lack of concern for the environmental aestheticism. Several studies have been conducted on the contribution of some environmental risk factors to malaria transmission in semi arid regions; however, little has been focused on environmental sanitation variables of interest in this study. In the face of climate change where we predict more land coverage to be semi arid than ever before due to global warming, conducting this kind of study in Karamoja region does not only models the future of environmental risk factors in Uganda in the face of climate change, but also bring into focus the need to integrate environmental management strategies in preventing and controlling malaria.

3. Aims and Objectives
The study aims to explore the significance of environmental sanitation variables in malaria transmission so as to guide the national malaria control program in its efforts towards malaria elimination and ultimate eradication. Specifically, the study will:
a) Establish the association between environmental sanitation variables within 100 meters of a household and malaria incidence.
b) Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention targeting significant Environmental Sanitation risk factors
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The goal is to retrospectively determine the exposure to environmental sanitation variables from each of the two groups of subjects: cases and controls. In the analysis, estimate of odds for children below five years who are not exposed but have malaria to those who are exposed and have malaria will be conducted. Many risk factors will be assessed and their association to malaria incidence established. About three (300) cases; children below five (5) years who visited health facility and tested positive for malaria within two months will be treated as cases. The same number of children below five years who visited the same facility within the same period but tested negative for malaria will be treated as controls. Cases and controls will then be followed up to their households where Environmental Sanitation variables within 100 meters radius of a household will be investigated. The identified potential risk factors will be listed and mapped using GIS. The study believes that within two months of data collection and risk factor assessment, environmental sanitation indicators at households will not have significantly changed to the extent that it can affect study results. In addition to health facility data on malaria cases, a questionnaire will be administered to households to establish if any child below five years had malaria

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