Toxicity depends not only on the level of the trace metal in the environment, but also where it is found in the environment (water, soil or air), the source, how acidic the environment is in the area of interest, and whether the metal exists by itself or as part of larger chemical compounds. In the North, we are most often concerned about trace metals in areas with mining, especially when there are old, abandoned mines with tailings that have leaked into lakes or streams. At the time that many of these older mines were operating, there were not many regulations about how to store and discharge tailings, so there was often pollution of local lakes and streams. Because these lakes and streams have often also become acidic due to the mine pollution, trace metals can become a problem and have toxic effects on local fish and
The types of compounds that can be analysed by SPME range from non-polar to semi-polar materials due to the different sorbent materials available. This extraction technique has become a standard technique, with fully automated systems available. The following outlined some of the applications of SPME that are widely employed. (9) 1. Analysis of amphetamines in urine using PDMS fiber.
Particulate matter (PM) is a composition of inert carbonaceous cores with multiple layers of various adsorbed molecules, including acid salts, organic pollutants, metals and biological elements, such as endotoxins, allergens and pollen fragment (Araujo et al, 2014). Particulate matter can be categorized in a few types. Total suspended particulates (TSP) is used to classify the particles that sizes up to 50μm. The larger particles in this class cannot enter our lungs because the size is too big to get past our noses or throats. Subcategories of particles matter which is small particulate matter such as PM10 and PM2.5 particles may contained in TSP samples.
The first type of pollution is air pollution. According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (as cited in Vallero, 2008, p. 3), air pollution is the presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. Air pollution always consists of a whole range of pollutants, gaseous and particular alike. Common pollutants which are major public health concern include particulate mass and some gases like ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide, and carbon monoxide. The sources of these pollutants include household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities, forest fires and pesticides.
There is no specific differences between every sample, however it was observed that the leaves of Amaranth plant were darker in sample 1 and sample 2, because it was contain high nickel and cadmium concentration in the soil (Ziaranti, P. , Somaye, 2014). By determining characteristic heavy metals especially Nickel and cadmium, they are still important because it contain micronutrients for the plants, but the higher amount of it could be have toxicity. High level in cadmium, have a negative effect for food chain of microorganism, it will damage the living tissue (Ziaranti, P. , Somaye,
Industrial revolution during last few decades is the main factor for enhancement of toxic metal contamination in the biosphere1. Heavy metal contamination is a serious environmental hazard for the agricultural soil, human, plants and animals. The most toxic heavy metals are Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Cr, Zn and Cu 2. These heavy metals are a group of 65 metallic elements with density greater than 5 gm/cm3. Among all heavy metals cadmium is one such heavy metal that is most hazardous 3 and has deleterious effects on agricultural ecosystem, environment and human health.
 2. Liquid-Liquid extraction (LLE) Liquid-liquid extraction is also named as partitioning and solvent extraction. In this method, compounds are separated depends on their relative solubility between two immiscible liquids (ie, organic solvent and water). In LLE, a compound is extracted from one to another liquid phase by using a seperatory funnel. Principle – LLE works on principle of partition coefficient or distribution coefficient between solvent and aqueous phase.
The effects of particulate matter on health occur at levels of exposure currently being experienced by many people both in urban and rural areas and in developed and developing countries. Outdoor air pollution, mostly associated with particulates ranked sixth in importance among all health risks in South Asia where it contributed to 712,000 deaths in 2010. The size of particles is important as it determines the extent of penetration of particles into the respiratory system. Recent studies have identified fine particles called PM2.5 (particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres or smaller) as being especially harmful because they may reach and persist in the alveolar region of the lungs . Fine particles are more dangerous than coarse particles.
The term Air Pollution can be further classified into two different sections- Visible air pollution and invisible air pollution. Another way of looking at Air Pollution could be any substance that holds the potential to hinder the atmosphere or the well being of the living beings surviving in it. The survival of all living beings is due to a combination of gases that collectively form the atmosphere; the imbalance caused by the increase or decrease of the percentage of such gases can be harmful for the survival of such living beings. In order to get an in depth study of Air Pollution we have to go through a detailed analysis of ‘Air Pollutants’ which is described in details as follows:- Air Pollutants – A human being is considered to breathe about 23000 times a day and inhales approximately 2000 litres of air. In this whole process carbon dioxide plays a very important role.