Besides that, the other category of cytokine-inducing bacterial molecules are mainly proteins and peptides that may bind to cell via CD14-TLR receptor system or act via other known, or unknown receptors (Casadevall & Pirofski, 2009; Wilson, McNab & Henderson, 2002). The action of modulins started with the secretion of modulins from bacteria or their direct interaction with host cells, activates the transcription of host cell cytokines. These cytokines can act in an autocrine manner, hence activating the host cell. It will either can be protective or cause pathology in infection (Wilson, McNab & Henderson,
Certain group of proteins or molecules are regulated in the cells to maintain accurate proteostasis inside the cell. Functionally, stress-regulated proteins can be grouped into several classes. Chaperones are the class of proteins or molecule which regulate the folding of the protein the functionally active state. Few sets of chaperones helps in preventing misfolded protein and promotes the clearance of the misfolded or toxic aggregates. Another group of proteins which involved in the degradation of the misfolded and irreversibly aggregated proteins from the cell.
The bactericidal activity of AgNPs against several pathogenic bacteria has been investigated by many research groups. At present, AgNPs are widely considered an alternative antibacterial agent to Ag+. This is because the effects of Ag+ have a limited duration. AgNPs exhibit superior antimicrobial properties mediated by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the larger surface-to-volume ratio of AgNPs allows increased interactions with the cell membrane and easy penetration into the cell, leading to complete destruction of microbial cells compared with Ag+ .According to Lara et al.
2006) Multiple pathogens have been found to recruit negative regulators of the host to their surface, by different binding molecules (Schneider et al. 2006; Schneider et al. 2007; Madico et al. 2006). In related pathogens, such as Neisseria gonorrhoea, it has also been found that fHbp is recruited, but it uses instead of the fHbp a porin (PorA) protein on the surface of the bacteria (Schneider et al.
Viruses are therefore employed as a medium to deliver the required gene with high efficiency into the target cells. Viral vectors are engineered using sophisticated methods such that the unwanted genes responsible for replication, assembling, or infection are replaced by the therapeutic gene. Current Viral vectors can further be categorized into, Non-lytic viruses, retroviruses and lentiviruses, produce virions from the cellular membrane of an infected cell, leaving the host cell relatively intact and Lytic viruses, human adenovirus and herpes simplex virus families, destroy the infected cell after replication and virion
This causes unwanted, and most likely harmful, alterations to the characteristics of the organism. Depending on the vitalness of the genes removed, this could even be mortal. Secondly, though DNA changes can easily be made to individual cells in a laboratory, for a change to be expressed in an organism, it must be made to all cells in that organism. This can be tackled by using a virus containing a programmed Cas9 molecule. The virus will introduce Cas9 into the cells it infects.
There are many types of antibiotics , and I will write about some of them. Some antibiotics enter the body immediately and attack the DNA in the bacteria. As we know, every organism has cells, and one of the most important in these cells is DNA, because it controls everything inside the cell, so it will be very effective in attacking DNA inside the cells. After that, the bacteria can not survive, so we will have gotten rid of it. In this situation, we have two ways to attack DNA.
Host defence comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protect against various diseases is known as immune system(97). Immune system can be classified broadly in two sub-systems, the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell mediated immunity. In humans, the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier separate peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system which protects the brain(98). Malfunctioning of immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Less active immune system results in life threatening infections and various immunodeficiencies.
Mycoplasmas usually adhere to cells but, depending on the species, may fuse with the host cell or even invade it (Balish et al., 2002; Dimitrov, 1993 and Lo et al., 1993). These bacteria deplete the nutrients of cell cultures and interfere with the response of these cells when challenged experimentally(Miyazaki, et al., 1990). Interruption of cell metabolism (Pollack et al., 1997), modulation of the immune response (Chambaud et al., 1999 and D’Orazio et al., 1996), modification of cellular morphology, interference with viral replication, chromosome modifications, or cell transformation may occur (Razin et al., 1998). The identification of these phenomena in accidental or experimental infections may contribute to the understanding of the relationship between mycoplasmas and the host cell (Rottem,
Inflammation may be acute or chronic. It is a result of a response to an injurious agent such as microbes and allergens. Inflammation also repairs or replaces tissue damaged by injurious agent. Signs of inflammation include tumour or swelling. Antigens are foreign proteins and other chemicals, which bind to antibodies and infection.