Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens is a bacteria which are Gram-positive, endospore-forming anaerobes, that appear to be rod-shaped. They lack flagella, but they can still migrate across surfaces using a type of gliding motility that involves the formation of filaments of bacteria lined up in an end-to-end conformation. Clostridium perfringens bacteria is most commonly found in soil, and it the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. (1,2) C. perfringens most commonly causes food poisoning, and various types of gangrene, infections from this bacteria can cause necrosis, bacteremia, and emphysematous cholecystitis. Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii.
C. diff commonly occurs in the healthcare environment through unsafe cleanliness practices. Spores that are passed in the feces can easily spread to food and other objects if a person fails to follow proper hand washing protocol. If a surface is not cleaned properly, the spore may be present in the room for up to
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen.
tapeworm eggs are generally ingested via food, water or soil contaminated with human or animal faeces. each section incorporates hundreds of microscopic tapeworm eggs. these eggs can be ingested via food contaminated with the faeces. once the eggs had been ingested, they grow to be larvae, which could migrate out of the intestines and shape cysts in other tissues along with the lungs or liver. tapeworm contamination also can be caused by ingesting uncooked or undercooked meat from an animal that has the larvae of the tapeworm, grouped in cysts in its muscle groups.
In septicemic plague, bacterial endotoxins cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), causing tiny clots throughout the body and possibly ischemic necrosis (tissue death due to lack of circulation/perfusion to that tissue) from the clots. DIC results in depletion of the body's clotting resources, so that it can no longer control bleeding. Consequently, there is bleeding into the skin and other organs, which can cause red and/or black patchy rash and hemoptysis/hematemesis (coughing up/ vomiting of blood). There are bumps on the skin that look somewhat like insect bites; these are usually red, and sometimes white in the center. Untreated, septicemic plague is usually fatal.
Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in moldering animal matter, sewage, manure soil, the mammalian intestine, and human and animal body waste. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections. The urinary tract infections involving struvite stones are characteristic. By producing urease, Proteus spp. can hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, and therefore raise urinary pH.
Abstract Meat borne diseases associated with consumption of ready-to-eat meat contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable public health concern. The ability to persist in food-processing environments and multiply under refrigeration temperatures makes L. monocytogenes a serious threat to public health. L. monocytogenes contamination is one of the leading microbiological causes of food recalls. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked meat and meat products are frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes during post-processing operations and handling as the processing facilities are frequently contaminated with non-persistent/ persistent L. monocytogenes. In addition to physical and biological interventions, chemical antimicrobial
Unpasteurized milk: Bacteria on a cow's udder or on milking equipment in the parlour can get into the milk. Raw vegetables: Runoff from farms can contaminate fields where fresh vegetables are grown; vegetables such as spinach and lettuce, so it is vital to wash all fresh vegetables. Contaminated water: Animal feces may pollute ground water such as streams and rivers, although some outbreaks of e-coli poisoning have been linked to contaminated municipal water supplies. Some people can become ill after swimming in pools. Person-person contact: It can travel from person to person, especially when the infected person doesn’t wash their hands properly.
Cholesterol is the most common word we all heard of.Eating too much of oily foods such chips, fried items can cause clog or block your arteries. https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Human_Body/Blood_Vessels Sodium: The salt contains a chemical substance in it called sodium. Intake of additional sodium, can cause damage to blood vessels. This will make the total amount of blood to the blood vessels, which will lead to the blood pressure too. If we take high salt on food will lead to clotting to our blood vessels.
BOTULINUM TOXIN The neurotoxins produced by the Clostridia species are among the most potent toxins known. Botulinum toxin, BoNT, is a poisonous substance produced within living cells by Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. Botulism poisoning results most frequently from the ingestion of contaminated food. Food must be cooked for a sufficient length of time, at 248 °F, for the heat resistant spores to die. Botulism also may result from a wound infection or enter the body v via the pulmonary tract, inhalational botulism (Dembek 339).
Necrotizing Fasciitis also known as flesh eating bacterial infection is a rapidly progressing fleshing eating disease which destroy muscle, fat and skin tissue. Flesh eating bacteria release toxin and destroy the surrounded tissue. This infection occurs in people with compromised immune system. The bacterias that caused this infection are Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, Aeromonas hydrophila. The infection usually begins locally by a trauma that allows the bacteria to enter the body.
The link between bacteria and ulcers was then established. After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.
Clostridium difficile can also be categorized as a motile (flagella present), spore forming bacterium that is found in an individual’s normal flora of the intestine. In addition, the C. difficile reservoir is prevalently found in water and soil reserves; thus, this bacterium can be labelled as ubiquitous in nature. C. difficile is transmitted via the
USDA has repeatedly purchased meat from companies that have been involved in major bacterial outbreaks. A handful of children have been sickened because of this. To make matters even worse, the USDA buys the cheapest meat it can get, leaving the meat highly susceptible to having harmful diseases and pieces of bones. Even fast-food restaurants have higher meat standards than the National School Lunch Program ((NSLP)USDA provides the meat for the NSLP). Lastly, chapter nine notifies people that kitchen sinks aren’t as clean as they may think.
The common food vehicles. Onsets is 2 days to 3 weeks; severe form may have incubation period period of 3 days to 3 months. Raw milk, deli type salads, processed meats, soft cheese, undercooked poultry. Ice cream, raw vegetables, raw and cooked poultry are contributing factors of this bacteria. Symptoms include sudden fever, headaches, back ache, occasional pain, and diarrhea septicemia and meningitis may lead to death.