The diencephalon, alongside the cerebrum make up the two major divisions of the forebrain. The main structures of the diencephalon include the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (including the pineal gland), and also the subthalamus. Moreover, located within the diencephalon is found the third ventricle, which is one of the four brain ventricles or cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The function of the diencephalon is to relay sensory information between brain regions and control many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.
In addition, the skeletal frame is superficial to the cutaneous membrane in the human body. • Key Anatomical features- The skin, nails, hair, and glands. 1. The skin-
The endocannabinoid system with its complex actions in our immune system, immune system and the body’s entire organ, is a bridge between body and mind. Furthermore, the cannabinoids not only regulate our internal and cellular homeostasis but it is also influences an individual relationship with their external environment. Socially, cannabinoids alter human behavior, often promoting sharing, creativity and humour (TruthOnPot.com,
They exert a wide range of functions in neuronal/glial proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in maintaining the membrane permeability to ions and in the stabilization of synaptic transporters and receptors, the latest processes relevant to the generation and propagation of the nervous impulse and synaptic transmission.20,39,40 Moreover, cell and animal models underscore the key function of sphingolipids in the neurite growth and myelination of the cerebellum and forebrain, among other brain regions.41,42 Deficiency of ceramide synthase-2 that generates sphingolipids with C22-C24 fatty acyl chains results in 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of CNS myelin basic protein.42 Similarly, a 60% reduction of myelin-associated glycoprotein in the cerebellum and forebrain characterizes mice deficient in ceramide synthase-1, the enzyme that generates C18:0 sphingolipids.41 Interestingly, mice deficient of ceramide synthase -6, which generates C16:0 sphingolipids, as well as mice deficient of GM3 synthase that is responsible for one of the first steps in the production of gangliosides, both present hyperactive behavior and have been postulated as suitable animal models for
Endomysium is found within a muscle and it contains nerves and capillaries. It is a fine layer of connective tissue that extracts each individual myocyte. P5 – Describe the sliding filament theory, giving a step by step process.
1.Spinal cord - is a long, and tubular shaped structure that contains nervous tissue and cells located at the end of the brainstem and continues down to the bottom of the vertebral column. It used to connect the peripheral nervous system and the brain. It acts as sensory system and transmitted message to the brain. 2.Conus medullaris - is a tapered structure that located in the most distal part of the spinal cord and end with filum terminale. 3.Cauda equina - It makes of spinal nerves and spinal nerve root that located near the first lumbar vertebra of spinal cord.
This cell column is called the ciliospinal center of Budge. Once the fibers exit the spinal cord, they travel through the stellate ganglion, the inferior cervical ganglion, and the middle cervical ganglion to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion at the carotid artery bifurcation. From the bifurcation the fibers travel with the internal carotid artery, and then enter the cavernous sinus. From the cavernous sinus they travel along the abducens nerve. The fibers enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, and pass through the ciliary ganglion, without synapsing.
To begin, the integumentary system also known as the skin, is the part of the body that meets the air. The skin is the largest organ in the body that comprises 15% of body weight. The skin has various functions, which are to regulate temperature, sensory perception, blood pressure control, excretory, and etc. One major function of the skin is to protect. The skin is the protective covering of the body that prevents the invasion of microorganisms.
After the ACh has found its way to the receptors and is bound to them, the muscle fibers become stimulated. The stimulated muscle fibers result in an impulse being generated. This impulse travels down the membrane until it reaches the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for regulating the Ca2+ ion concentration.
The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe.
When we hear a sound, the wave enters the ear canal and causes the eardrum to vibrate. The vibrations then passes through the middle ear which contains three bones that are connected. From there this gets fluid moving into the inner ear. This fluid maneuves through hair like cells which then turns those vibrations to nerve impulses. Those impulses are then moved to the brain bythe auditory nerve.
The Somatic nervous system has two neutrons. Those two neutrons are sensory neurons and motor neurons. The sensory neurons job is to carry information to the central nervous system. The motor neurons job is to carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle fibers throughout the
The brainstem is located underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. The midbrain includes the tectum and tegmentum. The brain stem is made up of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The midbrain is the rostral part of the brain stem. The pons are a part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain.
Stimuli initiating a nociceptive response vary, but receptors and endogenous defence mechanisms in the periphery interact in a similar manner regardless of the insult. Chemical, mechanical, and thermal receptors, along with leucocytes and macrophages, determine the intensity, location, and duration of noxious events. Noxious stimuli are transduced to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where amino acid and peptide transmitters activate second-order neurones. Spinal neurones then transmit signals to the brain. The resultant actions by the individual involve sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective, and modulatory processes in an attempt to limit or stop the painful process.