In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping.
• Sensory Sensory nerves transmit sensations such as touch and pain to the spinal cord and from there to the brain, • Autonomic. Autonomic nerves control the caliber of blood vessels, heart rate, gut contraction and other functions not under conscious control. Local anesthetic solution injected into the subarachnoid space blocks conduction of impulses along all nerves with which it comes in contact, Dorsal sensory roots are blocked more easily than the smaller anterior roots due to the organization of the dorsal root into bundles which expose a larger surface area to local anesthetic solutions. Autonomic and pain fibers are blocked first and motor fibers last, this physiology has many important consequences like the vasodilation and drop in blood pressure which occurs when the autonomic fibers are blocked and the patient may be aware of touch and yet feel no pain when surgery starts. Positions of neuraxial anesthesia • Sitting Position o No torque o Chin on chest o Arms resting on knees o Footstool/Table to support
Cerebral cortex is divided into four important lobes which is the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe and parietal lobe. These are the first areas of the cerebral cortex to receive signals from each of the senses. The first lobe is frontal lobe which is located at the front of the brain. This lobe works in reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition and expressive language. The motor cortex is located at the back side of the frontal lobe.
The middle nerve in the hand offers the sensation to the index finger, thumb, half part of the ring finger and the middle finger. The middle nerve is also do one work that will be t control a group of the muscles at a base of thumb. The median nerve is to be runs through a carpel tunnel that will be accompanied by
Touch. It is the essence of every human being that wants to successfully coordinate himself in the environment around him. To put it another way, touch is one of the most important senses that every being posses but most of the time it is the one that is most neglected as well. qTouch plays a big role in everyday life for every creature but there are some professions that necessarily need the touch component to be more precise and present. In this essay I will focus on the specific importance of the usage of touch for musicians and their field of expertize.
Human sensory perception is facilitated by a number of extremely complex systems that are responsible for relaying sensory information to the brain. Two such systems are the visual system and the auditory system. The human visual system can be broken down into three major components: the retina, the visual pathway, and the visual cortex.197 Each of these three components house complex systems within themselves comprised of many small, yet significant, parts that work together to allow the processing of visual information. In order to understand visual processing, one must begin with the retina. The retina is a layered network of cells whose nuclei are grouped into three different sections.
The Nervous System The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It acts as the body’s control center and coordinates body’s activities. Nerve cells, called neurons, send signals in the body that travel through impulses to reach their destinations. The CNS contains specific neurons called interneurons that transmit impulses between other nerve cells. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of all the nerves in the body that are not in the brain or spinal cord.
This nerve gives sensation to the thumb, index finger, long finger, and half of the ring finger. The ulnar nerve travels through a separate tunnel, called Guyon's canal. This tunnel is formed by two carpal bones, the pisiform and hamate, and the ligament that connects them. After passing through the canal, the ulnar nerve branches out to supply feeling to the little finger and half of the ring finger. Branches of this nerve also supply the small muscles in the palm and the muscle that pulls the thumb toward the palm.
As aforementioned, taste is merely a sensory system, which mammals rely on, in order to decide whether it is poisonous or not. Flavor consists of both taste and smell. According to Dr Susan Schiffman, 80% of what is perceived to be taste, is in fact, aroma. A simple way to prove Dr Susan Schiffman’s statement, is to take hold of the subject’s nose while eating. The food then
The peripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that branch out from the spinal cord and brain and spread out throughout the body form the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS carries messages to and from the CNS, which is responsible for the functioning of the limbs and organs of the body. Figure 1.1. – The Nervous System Structure of the Brain Protected within the skull, the brain is made up of three sections: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The brain stem forms a link between the cerebrum and cerebellum and the spinal cord.