(47) However, antibiotic administration increases the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and predisposes the patient to infection with organisms such as Clostridium difficile, a cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. (15) It is evident that there is excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics especially in the prevention and treatment of hospital-acquired infections, including SSI prophylaxis. (48) In the latter case, timing of administration of the first dose is a corner stone to success. (49, 50) Yet administeration usually occurs at the wrong time and duration lasts for too long which affects the cost of patient care. It was shown by several studies that the local implementation of practice guidelines can yield significant improvements in antibiotic use and the cost of surgical
One major problem or consequence globalization has brought is the increasing internationalization of health risks. Though globalization has many dimensions to be defined with, which includes economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural aspects, the links between globalization and health are complex and globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon that can affect health in countless ways. Its consequences can be either direct, at the level of whole populations, individuals and healthcare delivery systems, or indirect, through the economy and other factors, such as education, sanitation and water supply (Woodward et al, 2001). To focus on those risks to health or the problem to the world, it is realized that the central
The increased movement of people, food, and manufactured goods, which is one of the defining feature of globalization, is often criticized for having a negative impact on public health (The LEVIN Institute, n.d.). In effect, local diseases can easily travel together with goods and people. So, it can happen that dangerous diseases cross borders so quickly that it is very difficult
This is nowadays not so strictly so anymore because of increasing globalization, diseases spread and also they become global. WHO has to find out and develop ways to fight against the problems globalization brings with it, and provide consistent ways of
Introduction Vaccines are known to be a crucial means of maintaining population health, although many people are against being and/or getting their children vaccinated. A vaccination typically consists of a low-dose or synthetic virus strains injected into the body such that one will develop an immune response to that specific pathogen. In the case that a person contracts the virus in the future, their immune system will be able to recognize it and act faster, thus killing the invader. The war on vaccines escalated in 1998 when a false claim was made that the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine was linked to colitis (inflammation of the colon) and autism spectrum disorders. The untrue claim was subsequently published in The Lancet and the news became public.
Usually, epidemiological studies focus on a population selected from a specific area or country. Based on this, sub-groups may be defined for the selected population like age, ethnicity or sex. Epidemiology can be considered as one of the tools for improving population health; for instance, finding out the etiology (cause) of communicable diseases. It is also used to ascertain the disease burden in populations so that health authorities can carry out necessary preventive measures (Bonita et al.,
As a result, humans suffer increasingly from life threatening diseases and illnesses. The compilation of unnatural changes to our lifestyles has created opportunities for diseases to make their mark on humanity. I will explain how our lifestyles have resulted in disease and illness, that could have
Diseases were transferred from European to American which people suffered immensely from the disease that were new to them, such as smallpox, measles, malaria, etc. with large number of disease brought to the new world, the Indian population was immensely impacted by these illnesses. The Indian population was devastated by the illness, since Indian were isolated from other cultures and people before the arrival of European. Since the disease was extremely communicable, the spread of the disease was rapid. This made the Indian to become infected easily which wipe had of the population.
Globalization and Public Health It is apparent that the flow of people, food, and manufactured goods can have many negative impacts on public health worldwide. The spread of infectious diseases such as the West Nile Virus and H1N1 – better known as the “swine flu” – have shown us that this ease of transport comes with a price. However, it is difficult to say if we should take measures to reduce the exchanges that have brought our world closer and closer together. We have grown so used to having things so connected and available that reducing this would regress the world as we know it. While there may be less and far slower spreads of the disease, I believe that one way or another, it would still happen.
Antibiotic resistance leads to greater medical costs, long hospital stays, and increased mortality. The world urgently needs to change the way it prescribes and uses antibiotics. Even if new medicines are developed, without behavior change, antibiotic resistance will remain a major danger. Behavior variations must