There are 7 bones in the head are associated bones. Then working down there is 25 bones of the thorax which is found in the sternum, these are more commonly known as our ribs. The ribs protect the organs in the centre of your body such as your lungs, liver and heart. Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx. The appendicular part of the skeletal system supports the appendages of vertebrates.
It usually affected the lowest vertebra of the back. It is not easy to detected due to it covered by the skin or spinal tissue. Most of time, it is asymptomatic. 6.Spina bifida aperta - is a vertebral protrusion that contains the meninges or the meninges and spinal cord. It causes CNS defects.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column.
The supraspinatus originates at the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus. Its function is to assists the deltoid abduct the arm while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint. The infraspinatus originates at the infraspinatus fossa on the posterior surface of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humorous. Its function is to adduct and laterally rotates the shoulder at the G/H joint while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H
The lower end of the humerus has two rounded knobs the lateral and medial condyles. Between the two of these is a hole that extends completely through the bone, this is called the supratrochlear foramen. The ulna and radius act as one bone and are held together firmly by ligaments and always move together. The upper end of the ulna has a hook like process that fits perfectly in the supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. On the ulna there is a ridge called the trochlear notch, this fits against and rotates between the medial and lateral condyles on the humerus.
The sacrum is made of 5 fused vertebrae; which are connected to 4 fused vertebrae which form coccyx. Intervertebral discs lie between each vertebrae. Each disc is composed of a gelatinous material in the center, called the nucleus pulpous, and surrounded fiberous tissue (annulus fibrosus). With a disc herrniation, an intervertebral disc's
The principal arteries of supply to the head and neck are the “two common carotids; they ascend in the neck and each divides into two branches. One is the external carotid, supplying the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck and two the internal carotid, supplying to a great extent the parts within the cranial and orbital cavities” (Common). Coronary Arteries are the network of arteries that encircles the heart to provide its blood supply. The two primary coronary arteries, the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, branch from the aorta as it arises from the left ventricle. The left coronary artery is significantly larger and supplies the left heart.
Cortical bones, also known as compact bones, form the hard-external layer of all bones that helps protect and strengthen the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone marrow. Within the cortical bones are lamellae called osteons. Osteons are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress, which hold the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. These bones primarily help to resist bending and fracturing. Trabecular bones, also known as spongy bones, form the inner layer of all bones that helps to reduce the density of bones allowing the ends of long bones to compress when subject to stress.
In the classic nomenclature(28) the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum is divided into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe (Fig 2 and 3), by two deep fissures known as the primary fissure between the anterior and posterior lobes and the posterolateral fissure between the tonsil and flocculonodular lobe(24,25). The anterior lobe is bound anteriorly by superior medullary velum and posteriorly by the primary fissure. The vermis and hemispheres in the anterior lobe are further divided into lobules by two fissures namely precentral fissure and the preculminate fissure. The vermis is divided into three lobules namely lingula, central lobule and culmen.
The cranium size can be analyzed by comparing the size of the overall cranium with the size of the overall face. The cranium shape can be determined by analyzing the height and width of the overall skull. The degree of prognathism can be examined by looking at the profile of the skull and determined how much the face projects outward. By looking at the back of the skull and analyzing the morphology of the occipital and nuchal region the shape of occipital and nuchal region can be determined. When determining canine size and diastema, one should analyze and compare the canine to other teeth and the space between the canine and the premolars.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones).